dict.md logo
Choose languages of interest
SELECT >>
English
German
French
Spanish
Portuguese
 
Add further languages:
Add all languages
Advertisement:
Definition
 
enEnglish
Anencephaly definition: A malformation of the nervous system caused by failure of the anterior neuropore to close. Infants are born with intact spinal cords, cerebellums, and brainstems, but lack formation of neural structures above this level. The skull is only partially formed but the eyes are usually normal. This condition may be associated with folate deficiency. Affected infants are only capable of primitive (brain stem) reflexes and usually do not survive for more than two weeks. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p247)
anencephalus definition: congenital malformation of the nervous system caused by failure of the anterior neuropore to close; infants are born with intact spinal cords, cerebellums, and brainstems, but lack formation of neural structures above this level; the skull is only partially formed but the eyes are usually normal; affected infants are only capable of primitive reflexes and usually do not survive for more than two weeks; complete absence of the brain is rare.
Brain definition: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Brain definition: Subdivision of neuraxis that consists of neural tissue (which is organized into gray matter and white matter) and the cerebral ventricular system (cavity of organ part); it is embryologically derived from the rostral part of the neural tube; together with the spinal cord, the brain constitutes the organ neuraxis. Examples: There is only one brain.
brain definition: portion of the vertebrate central nervous system that is enclosed within the cranium, continuous with the spinal cord, and composed of gray matter and white matter; the primary center for the regulation and control of bodily activities, receiving and interpreting sensory impulses, and transmitting information to the muscles and body organs; also the seat of consciousness, thought, memory, and emotion; includes the functionally similar portion of the invertebrate nervous system.
Brain definition: Segment of neuraxis that has as its parts gray matter and white matter that surround the cerebral ventricular system; Examples: There is only one brain.
BRAIN definition: An organ composed of grey and white matter containing billions of neurons that is the center for intelligence and reasoning. It is protected by the bony cranium. (NCI)
Brain definition: An organ composed of grey and white matter containing billions of neurons that is the center for intelligence and reasoning. It is protected by the bony cranium.
Brain Abscess definition: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
Brain Chemistry definition: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Brain Concussion definition: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)
Concussion definition: A violent jar or shock, or the condition which results from such an injury.
Concussion definition: A violent jar or shock, or the condition which results from such an injury.
Brain Death definition: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
Brain Diseases definition: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
brain disorder definition: pathologic conditions affecting the brain, which is composed of the intracranial components of the central nervous system.
Cerebral Decortication definition: Partial or total removal, ablation, or destruction of the cerebral cortex; may be chemical. It is not used with animals that do not possess a cortex, i.e., it is used only with mammals.
Diencephalon definition: The paired caudal parts of the prosencephalon from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
diencephalon definition: caudal part of the prosencephalon composed of the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus.
Diencephalon definition: Organ component of neuraxis that has as its parts the epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus. There is only one diencephalon.
Encephalitis definition: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
encephalitis definition: inflammation of the brain due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions; viral infections are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Meninges definition: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
meninges definition: three membranes covering of the brain and spinal cord; named the dura mater, pia mater and arachnoid.
Meninx definition: Membrane organ that surrounds the brain and the spinal cord.
stroke definition: sudden neurologic impairment due to a cerebrovascular disorder, either an arterial occlusion or an intracranial hemorrhage.
Stroke definition: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Cerebrovascular Accident definition: A sudden, nonconvulsive loss of neurologic function due to an ischemic or hemorrhagic intracranial vascular event. In general, cerebrovascular accidents are classified by anatomic location in the brain, vascular distribution, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. nonhemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Fornix, Brain definition: Heavily myelinated fiber bundle of the TELENCEPHALON projecting from the hippocampal formation to the HYPOTHALAMUS. Some authorities consider the fornix part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. The fimbria starts as a flattened band of axons arising from the subiculum and HIPPOCAMPUS, which then thickens to form the fornix.
Fornix of forebrain definition: Fornix of forebrain is an organ subdivision of the telencephalon which is made up primarily of myelinated axonal neural tissue. The fornix is an arch-shaped fiber bundle connecting Ammon's horn of the hippocampus with the mammillary nuclei of the hypothalamus and anterior nuclei of the thalamus.
Infundibulum (Hypophysis) definition: The posterior part of the PITUITARY STALK, derived from a funnel-shaped downgrowth from the floor of DIENCEPHALON.
cerebral hemisphere definition: (seh-REE-bral HEM-iss-feer) One half of the cerebrum, the part of the brain that controls muscle functions and also controls speech, thought, emotions, reading, writing, and learning. The right hemisphere controls the muscles on the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the muscles on the right side of the body.
Cerebral hemisphere definition: One of two bilateral, largely symmetrical organ subdivisions within the telencephalon which contain the cerebral cortex and cerebral white matter.
Cranial Cavity definition: The atrium that is formed by the bones of the skull and containing the brain.
Brain Hemangioma definition: A hemangioma arising from the brain.
Brain Injuries definition: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
brain injury definition: damage inflicted to the brain; may be acute or chronic.
Neurocysticercosis definition: Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)
brain cell definition: header term for the cells that make up the brain; includes neurons, glia, and other specialized cells in the brain.
brain commissure definition: bundles of nerve fibers which cross the midline, connecting two homologous parts of the brain; to be indexed with another term describing the area of the brain in which the commissure is located.
mind control definition: external, coercive persuasion of behavior by biomedical, physical, psychological, or social means, generally for nontherapeutic reasons; involves inducing or urging the adoption of certain beliefs, theories, or lines of action by others; do not confuse with perception that something else has determined the outcome of a circumstance, for this concept refer to LOCUS OF CONTROL.
Biopsy of Brain definition: Removal of brain tissue for microscopic examination.
Brain Infarction definition: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
brain development definition: The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the brain over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The brain is one of the two components of the central nervous system and is the center of thought and emotion. It is responsible for the coordination and control of bodily activities and the interpretation of information from the senses (sight, hearing, smell, etc.). [GOC:jic, http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk]
brain circulation definition: supply and flow of blood through the vascular system of the brain; see CEREBROVASCULAR SYSTEM for the anatomical portions of the brain circulatory system.
Brain Edema definition: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
brain edema definition: increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue; cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries; an increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid flow.
Hypoxia, Brain definition: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
brain definition: [1] das Gehirn, zentraler Teil des menschlichen Nervensystems
brain definition: cerveau.
brain definition: frapper à la tête.
 
 
deGerman
Gehirn definition: [1] Anatomie: der im Kopf gelegenen Teil des Zentralnervensystems der Wirbeltiere [2] Vergleichende Anatomie: der Ansatz zur Bildung von Nervenzentren [3] umgangssprachlich: Verstand, Denkvermögen
Bregen definition: [1] das Gehirn, speziell bei Schlachttieren
Hirn definition: [1] Anatomie, kurz für: Gehirn [2] Gastronomie: Gehirn von Schlachttieren als Speise
 
faPersian
مغز definition: [1] Gehirn
 
urUrdu
دماغ definition: [1] Gehirn
 
frFrench
cerveau definition: Organe central supervisant le système nerveux des animaux présentant une céphalisation ; encéphale.
cerveau definition: Siège des facultés mentales, de la pensée.
cerveau definition: Centre organisateur qui gère et supervise ou personne qui a mis un plan sur pied.
cerveau definition: Personne à l’intelligence remarquable.
cervelle definition: Nom vulgaire du cerveau, surtout chez l’homme.
cervelle definition: Cerveau des animaux tués, destiné à servir de mets.
cervelle definition: Organe de la pensée et, par suite, l’intelligence, le jugement.
jugeote definition: Raison, intelligence ; s'utilise le plus souvent par antiphrase.