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antigen presenting cell definition: heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediates the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cell receptor; traditional antigen presenting cells include macrophages, dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, and B-lymphocytes; follicular dendritic cells are also considered to be antigen presenting cells by some.
Antigen-Presenting Cells definition: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
antigen-presenting cell definition: A cell that shows antigen on its surface to other cells of the immune system. This is an important part of an immune response.
Antigen Presenting Cell definition: A cell that enables a T-lymphocyte to recognize an antigen by engulfing the antigen, breaking down the antigen into smaller fragments which bind to MHC molecules on the surface of the antigen presenting cell. The T-lymphocyte can now recognize and bind with the MHC-linked antigen.
APUD Cells definition: Cells with the capacity to take up and decarboxylate the amine precursors DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE or 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN. This is a property of endocrine cells of neural and non-neural origin. APUDOMA is a general term collectively applied to tumors associated with APUD cells.
APUD Cell definition: Cells derived from primitive cell types in the neural crest. During ontogeny they migrate to the foregut and specific locations of the neuroendocrine system. Properly located these cells form part of the normal hormone producing tissues of the neuroendocrine system. If misdirected these cells may become hyperplastic, adenomatous, or malignant. (MeSH)
B lymphocyte definition: lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity; they are short lived cells resembling bursa derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
B-Lymphocytes definition: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
B lymphocytes definition: White blood cells that make antibodies and are an important part of the immune system. B lymphocytes come from bone marrow.
B-Lymphocyte definition: Immunologically important lymphocyte that is not thymus-dependent, is either short-lived and naive or long-lived and of memory phenotype, and resembles the bursa-derived lymphocyte of birds in that it is responsible for the production of immunoglobulins.
Cell Adhesion definition: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
cell adhesion definition: adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
cellular adhesion definition: The close adherence (bonding) to adjoining cell surfaces.
cell adhesion definition: The attachment of a cell, either to another cell or to an underlying substrate such as the extracellular matrix, via cell adhesion molecules. [GOC:hb, GOC:pf]
Cell Adhesion definition: Cell Adhesion involves close adherence (bonding) of a cell to another cell surface or to insoluble material due to physiochemical attraction between molecules on the surfaces of the adjoining bodies in contact.
Cell Aggregation definition: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
cell aggregation definition: phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type; also in vivo massing of cells.
Cell Aging definition: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
cell senescence definition: final stage of cellular differentiation, characterized by inability to grow, divide, or repair damaged cell components, leading to cell death.
cell aging definition: Progression of the cell from its inception to the end of its lifespan. [GOC:jh, PMID:12044934]
Cell Aging definition: Progression of the cell from its inception to the end of its lifespan. (Gene Ontology)
Cell Communication definition: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
cell cell interaction definition: ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
cell communication definition: Any process that mediates interactions between a cell and its surroundings. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment. [GOC:mah]
Cell Fusion definition: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Cell Fusion definition: A technique to form a single hybrid cell, by fusion of two or more dissimilar cells, either spontaneously or by induced fusion. The cells fuse and coalesce, but their nuclei may remain separated. The cell fusion technique can be used as a method of assigning genes to specific chromosomes.
Cell Hypoxia definition: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
Cells definition: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
cell definition: minute protoplasmic masses that make up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus which is surrounded by protoplasm which contains the various organelles and is enclosed in the cell or plasma membrane; cells are the fundamental, structural, and functional units of living organisms.
cell definition: The individual unit that makes up all of the tissues of the body. All living things are made up of one or more cells.
cell definition: The basic structural and functional unit of all organisms. Includes the plasma membrane and any external encapsulating structures such as the cell wall and cell envelope. [GOC:go_curators]
Cell definition: Anatomical structure which has as its boundary the external surface of a maximally connected plasma membrane. Examples: lymphocyte, fibroblast, erythrocyte, neuron.
Cell definition: Anatomical structure that consists of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane, with or without the cell nucleus; together with other cells and intercellular matrix, it constitutes tissues. Examples: lymphocyte, fibroblast, erythrocyte, neuron.
Cell definition: The smallest units of living structure capable of independent existence, composed of a membrane-enclosed mass of protoplasm and containing a nucleus or nucleoid.
Enterochromaffin Cells definition: A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
Enterochromaffin Cell definition: A group of basal granular cells of the gut whose granules stain readily with silver and chromium salts. The cells secrete serotonin, substance P, and enkephalins. (MeSH)
Argentaffin Cell definition: An enteroendocrine cell located in the basilar portions of the glands of the gastrointestinal tract. The granules in the cell stain readily with chromium and silver salts without pretreatment with a reducing agent.
Intercellular Junctions definition: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
cell junction definition: A plasma membrane part that forms a specialized region of connection between two cells or between a cell and the extracellular matrix. At a cell junction, anchoring proteins extend through the plasma membrane to link cytoskeletal proteins in one cell to cytoskeletal proteins in neighboring cells or to proteins in the extracellular matrix. [GOC:mah, http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/cmb/cells/pmemb/junctions_a.html, ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
cell-cell junction definition: A cell junction that forms a connection between two cells; excludes direct cytoplasmic junctions such as ring canals. [GOC:dgh, GOC:hb, GOC:mah]
Cell Junction definition: Cell junction is the specialized focal contact between cell-cell or cell-matrix in all tissues. Cell junctions have various functions either communication, anchoring or organization. There are specific protein associated with subtype of cell junctions and most of the junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscope.
L cell definition: cells from c3h mouse fibroblasts grown in tissue culture that can support replication of many types of viruses.
L Cells (Cell Line) definition: A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Alpha Cell definition: A cell in the periphery of the pancreatic islets that secretes glucagon.
Glucagon-Secreting Cells definition: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.
T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic definition: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
cytotoxic T lymphocyte definition: antibody-independent "killer cells" derived from the CD8 T lymphocyte line which, when stimulated by antigen, MHC class I antigen, and interleukin 2, secrete cytolytic pore-forming proteins capable of lysing target cells.
cytotoxic T cells definition: A type of white blood cell that can directly destroy specific cells. T cells can be separated from other blood cells, grown in the laboratory, and then given to a patient to destroy tumor cells. Certain cytokines can also be given to a patient to help form cytotoxic T cells in the patient's body.
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte definition: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. These cells are distinct from natural killer cells and from killer cells mediating antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity.
3T3 Cells definition: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
3T3 cell definition: a ubiquitous tissue culture model for nontransformed animal cells; derived from nonneoplastic immortalized fibroblasts.
Adipocytes definition: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
adipocyte definition: fat-storing cells found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue.
Adipocyte definition: Fat-storing cells found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. (MeSH)
Lipocyte definition: A fat storing cell.
Pneumocytes definition: Epithelial cells that line the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Alveolar Cell definition: A cell found in the walls of the pulmonary alveoli; the term is limited to alveolar epithelial cells (type I and type II alveolar cells).
amacrine cell definition: interneurons of the vertebrate retina which integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the retinal ganglion cells, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
Amacrine Cells definition: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
Amacrine Cell definition: A retinal neuron that lacks large axons, having only processes that resemble dendrites.
Abnormal Cell definition: A cell that occurs in human diseases or in experimental models of human cancer.
acinar cell definition: any of the cells lining an acinus; acinus is a general term used to designate a small saclike dilatation, particularly one found in various glands.
Pericytes definition: Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.
Pericyte definition: Slender, contractile, mesenchymal-like cells found in close association with capillary walls. They are relatively undifferentiated and may become fibroblasts, macrophages, or smooth muscle cells. (MeSH)
Acidophilic Cell definition: A cell whose cytoplasm or its granules stain with acid dyes.
Cellular Telephone definition: A hand-held mobile radiotelephone for use in an area divided into small sections (cells), each with its own short-range transmitter/receiver
Cellular Phone definition: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
cell-cell adhesion definition: The attachment of one cell to another cell via adhesion molecules. [GOC:hb]
Cell-Cell Adhesion definition: Mechanisms whereby cells attach together to form tissues.
cell-cell signaling definition: Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another. [GOC:mah]
Intercellular Communication definition: An information exchange between living cells through direct cell contacts or by extracellular chemical signals. Cell signaling allows cell populations to maintain homeostatic balance and enable healthy cells and tissue to respond to external stimuli. This balance is frequently disrupted in cancerous or tumorigenic cells.
cell-cell signaling involved in cell fate commitment definition: Signaling at long or short range between cells that results in the commitment of a cell to a certain fate. [GOC:dph, GOC:go_curators, GOC:tb]
mitotic cell cycle definition: Progression through the phases of the mitotic cell cycle, the most common eukaryotic cell cycle, which canonically comprises four successive phases called G1, S, G2, and M and includes replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells. In some variant cell cycles nuclear replication or nuclear division may not be followed by cell division, or G1 and G2 phases may be absent. [GOC:mah, ISBN:0815316194, Reactome:69278]
Cell Cycle definition: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one cell division and the end of the next, by which cellular material is divided between daughter cells. The cell cycle is an ordered set of events, culminating in cell growth and division into two daughter cells. The stages of cell cycle includes G1-S-G2-M. The G1 stage stands for "GAP 1". The S stage stands for "Synthesis". This is the stage when DNA replication occurs. The G2 stage stands for "GAP 2". The M stage stands for "mitosis", and is when nuclear (chromosomes separate) and cytoplasmic (cytokinesis) division occur.
cell-cell junction assembly definition: The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a junction between cells. [GOC:ai]
cell-cell junction maintenance definition: The maintenance of junctions between cells. [GOC:ai]
cell-cell adherens junction definition: An adherens junction which connects two cells to each other. [GOC:hb]
Non-nucleated cell definition: Cell which has as its direct part a maximally connected part of cytoplasm. Examples: erythrocyte, corneocyte, lens fiber, thrombocyte.
Non-nucleated cell definition: Cell that consists of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane; may or may not associate with other cells and intercellular matrix to constitute tissues. Examples: erythrocyte, corneocyte, lens fiber.
3T3-L1 Cells definition: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
cell-cell recognition definition: Cell recognition between cells, usually involving the formation of specialized cell junctions. [ISBN:0824072820]
Cell-Cell Adhesion Inhibition definition: Cell-Cell Adhesion Inhibition involves interference with, or restraint of, the activities of biologic molecules, biologic complexes, or subcellular components that promote the adherence of cells to other cells.
Cell to Cell Adhesion Signaling Pathway definition: Interactions between cells, responsible for cell to cell adhesion, can communicate signals into the cellular interior. These signals often involve interactions with cytoskeletal elements to produce changes in cell motility, migration, proliferation and shape. The cadherins are cell surface adhesion molecules that help form tight junctions between cells, such as in formation of epithelial cell layers. E-cadherin inactivation has been implicated in cancer development. In addition to mediating adhesion with other cells, cadherins transduce signals into cells through interactions with the catenins. Catenins probably affect actin cytoskeletal function through interactions with proteins such as actinin and vinculin. Catenins also probably trigger changes in cell shape and motility by signals through the Rho small GTPases. Another important cell adhesion molecule is CD-31, or PECAM-1, involved in the formation of junctions between endothelial cells, cell migration, migration of lymphocytes, and regulation of lymphocyte activation. Src phosphorylates PECAM-1 on tyrosine residues causing SHP-2 association with PECAM-1. Paxillin acts as an adaptor protein between proteins involved in adhesion signaling like FAK and src and cytoskeletal elements. In addition to signals created by adhesion molecules to alter cellular responses, other signaling pathways can alter adhesion through components of the focal adhesion complex. (BioCarta)
cell cortex of cell tip definition: The region directly beneath the plasma membrane at the cell tip. The cell tip is the region at either end of the longest axis of a cylindrical or elongated cell. [GOC:ai]
inductive cell-cell signaling definition: Signaling at short range between cells of different ancestry and developmental potential that results in one cell or group of cells effecting a developmental change in the other. This is often done by secretion of proteins by one cell which affects the neighboring cells and causes them to adopt a certain fate. [GOC:mah]
cell-cell junction organization definition: A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cell-cell junction. A cell-cell junction is a specialized region of connection between two cells. [GOC:ai, GOC:dph, GOC:jl, GOC:mah]
Adenohypophysial Cell definition: One of five types of secreting cells (somatotrophs, lactotrophs, corticotrophs, thyrotrophs, and gonadotrophs) found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
Apocrine Cell definition: A glandular secreting cell in which the apical portion of the secreting cell is cast off along with the secretory products that have accumulated therein.
Corticotroph Cell definition: A small, irregularly stellate, acidophilic cell of the adenohypophysis, having small, sparsely distributed secretory granules and secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone and b-endorphin, which are cleaved from a large prohormone called pro-opiomelanocortin.
Corticotrophs definition: Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.
regulation of cell-cell adhesion definition: Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of attachment of a cell to another cell. [GOC:isa_complete]
Cell definition: Any small compartment.
homotypic cell-cell adhesion definition: The attachment of a cell to a second cell of the identical type via adhesion molecules. [GOC:add]
heterotypic cell-cell adhesion definition: The attachment of a cell to a cell of a different type via adhesion molecules. [GOC:add]
cell definition: [1] Zelle
cell definition: Une cellule.
lock-up definition: Cachot, prison.
Zelle definition: [1] Biologie: Bezeichnung für die kleinste Einheit eines Lebewesens [2] allgemein: ein kleiner Raum, in den man sich einschließt oder in dem man eingeschlossen wird [3] Elektrotechnik: Bauelement [4] Soziologie: Kleine Gruppe gemeinsam agierender Personen [5] Nachname [6] Flugzeugrumpf bei kleinen Flugzeugen [7] Informationstechnologie: Einheit eines zellularen Funknetzes
Nukleus definition: [1] Biologie: Zellkern [2] Linguistik: Silbengipfel, Silbenkern
ląstelė definition: [1] Biologie: Zelle
buňka definition: [1] Biologie, Baustein lebendiger Organismen: Zelle [2] organisatorische Einheit eines strukturierten Ganzen: Zelle
cellule definition: Pièce fermée où sont enfermés des prisonniers ou isolés des moines.
cellule definition: Unité structurale et fonctionnelle constituant tout (unicellulaire) ou une partie (pluricellulaire) d’un être vivant, constituée d’un cytoplasme organisé autour d'un noyau et délimité par une membrane.
cellule definition: Partie d’une aile d’insecte.
cellule definition: En téléphonie mobile et autres domaines, une zone géographique locale.
cellule definition: Compartiment hexagonal se trouvant sur les rayons d’une ruche.
cellule definition: Cavités de certains organes des végétaux ou des animaux; de certains fruits où les semences sont logées et comme enchâssées.
cellule definition: Case dans une feuille de calcul de tableur.
cellule definition: Groupe de travail spécialisé, dans une organisation.
cellule definition: (''Météorologie''): Unité atmosphérique pourvue de mouvements d'air ascendants et descendants. Ces mouvements peuvent aboutir à la création de cumulus et donner des orages (de grêle parfois) accompagnés de rafales de vents, d'éclairs et de tonnerre.
prison definition: Endroit clos où sont enfermés les gens condamnés à une peine de privation de liberté ou les prévenus en attente de jugement.
prison definition: Peine subie dans une prison.
prison definition: Par extension, tout ce qui tient enfermé quelqu'un ou quelque chose.
portable definition: Téléphone '''portable''', cellulaire.
portable definition: Ordinateur '''portable'''.
batterie definition: Querelle où il y a des coups donnés.
batterie definition: Pièces d’artillerie, destinées à tirer sur l’ennemi, et souvent d’un lieu, d’un ouvrage où l’on place un certain nombre de ces pièces.
batterie definition: ''Dresser ses '''batteries''''' : Prendre ses mesures pour faire réussir un projet.
batterie definition: ''Démonter la '''batterie''', les '''batteries''' de quelqu’un'' : Déconcerter son plan, rendre ses moyens nuls en lui en opposant de plus forts.
batterie definition: Unité d’une compagnie de régiment d’artillerie.
batterie definition: Réunion d’éléments producteurs de courant électrique.
batterie definition: Ensemble d’accumulateurs électriques reliés entre eux de façon à créer un générateur de courant continu de la capacité et de la tension désirée.
batterie definition: '''''Batterie''' de cuisine'' : Ensemble des ustensiles en métal qui servent à la cuisine.
batterie definition: Diverses manières de battre le tambour.
batterie definition: Certaine manière de jouer sur la guitare, qui consiste à battre les cordes avec les doigts au lieu de les pincer.
batterie definition: Suite d’arpèges à notes détachées qui se font sur certains instruments à cordes.
batterie definition: Instrument de musique permettant de donner le rythme dans des formations musicales. Fait partie de la section rythmique d’une formation.
cachot definition: Cellule basse et obscure.
cell definition: Cellule.
cell definition: Cachot, prison.