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Definition
 
enEnglish
DNA, A-Form definition: An isoform of DNA that occurs in an environment rich in SODIUM and POTASSIUM ions. It is a right-handed helix with 11 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.256 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 2.3 nm.
A-DNA definition: A-DNA is a shorter and wider helix than B-DNA. Most RNA and RNA-DNA duplex are in this form. While deep, narrow major groove is not easily accessible to proteins but wide, shallow minor groove is accessible to proteins but with lower information content than major groove. A-DNA is the favored conformation at low water concentrations. Base pairs are tilted to helix axis and displaced from axis and sugar pucker is C3'-endo (in RNA 2'-OH inhibits C2'-endo conformation). When examined from the top of the helix, there is a large hole in the middle, the sugar phosphate backbone is at the edge of the helix, and the bases are displaced towards the edge.
Blotting, Southern definition: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
southern blotting definition: method of identifying DNA by cDNA or RNA hybridization after electrophoresis and transfer to nitrocellulose or other fixative.
Southern Blotting definition: A technique for the detection of specific DNA fragments that have been separated by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, transferred to a nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane, and detected by hybridization and visualization with a labeled probe.
Southern Blot definition: Molecular, Southern Blot
DNA, Complementary definition: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
complementary DNA definition: single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase; used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
cDNA definition: Single-stranded DNA that is complementary to messenger RNA or DNA that has been synthesized from messenger RNA by reverse transcriptase.
DNA definition: deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells; eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions; DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
DNA definition: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
DNA definition: A long linear double-stranded polymer formed from nucleotides attached to a deoxyribose backbone and found in the nucleus of a cell; associated with the transmission of genetic information.
deoxyribonucleic acid definition: The molecules inside cells that carry genetic information and pass it from one generation to the next.
DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase definition: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.
DNA Damage definition: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
DNA damage definition: drug or radiation effects on DNA that interfere with normal function, including conformational distortions and covalent gene mutations.
DNA Damage definition: Drug-, radiation-induced, or spontaneous injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal double-helical conformation. These changes include structural distortions that interfere with replication and transcription, as well as point mutations that disrupt base pairs and exert damaging effects on future generations through changes in DNA sequence. If the damage is minor, it can often be repaired (DNA repair); extensive damage can induce apoptosis.
DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase definition: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
DNA Polymerase definition: Nucleotidyltransferases that catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA. EC 2.7.7.7 or EC 2.7.7.49
DNA-directed DNA Polymerase definition: Catalyses DNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of a DNA strand by one nucleotide at a time. Cannot initiate a chain de novo. Requires a primer, which may be DNA or RNA. (IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature)
DNA, Bacterial definition: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
bacterial DNA definition: deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
DNA, Circular definition: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
circular DNA definition: covalently closed DNA ring found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids; small circular DNA has also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms.
Daunorubicin-DNA Complex definition: A complex comprised of Daunorubicin linked to DNA to enhance the topoisomerase II-mediated interaction with the DNA base pairs and reduce cardiotoxicity associated with anthracyclines. (NCI)
Doxorubicin-DNA Complex definition: A complex comprised of Doxorubicin linked to DNA to enhance the topoisomerase II-mediated interaction with the DNA base pairs and reduce cardiotoxicity associated with anthracyclines. (NCI)
DNA, Antisense definition: DNA that is complementary to the sense strand. (The sense strand has the same sequence as the mRNA transcript. The antisense strand is the template for mRNA synthesis.) Synthetic antisense DNAs are used to hybridize to complementary sequences in target RNAs or DNAs to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
DNA Analysis definition: Any DNA based laboratory tests.
DNA Adducts definition: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
DNA, Chloroplast definition: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
DNA, Archaeal definition: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
DNA, Catalytic definition: Molecules of DNA that possess enzymatic activity.
gene mutation definition: any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the genotype and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Gene Mutation definition: A gene mutation is an alteration in the nucleotide sequence of a gene, involving a single or multiple nucleotide substitution, deletion, insertion, or rearrangement that is perpetuated in subsequent divisions of the cell in which it occurs.
DNA Replication definition: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
DNA replication definition: process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated in vivo, or studies of the natural process in vitro; for artificial synthesis, see NUCLEIC ACID CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS and its narrower terms.
DNA replication definition: The process whereby new strands of DNA are synthesized. The template for replication can either be an existing DNA molecule or RNA. [ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
DNA Replication definition: The process by which the two strands of a DNA double helix separate, allowing each strand to act as a template for the synthesis of a complementary strand by specific base pairing. Includes autonomous but not virus replication.
DNA Synthesis definition: DNA Synthesis is the polymeric linkage of deoxyribose moieties (with adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine side chains) by phosphate groups attached to their 5-prime and 3-prime sugar hydroxyls.
DNA Microarray Chip definition: An orderly array of DNA samples affixed to a support. Using robots thousands of samples can be arrayed on a single chip. The chip is used in various types of hybridization experiments.
DNA amplification definition: The process by which the number of copies of a gene is increased in certain cells as extra copies of DNA are made in response to certain signals of cell development or of stress from the environment. [ISBN:0721601464]
Library definition: A collection of DNA molecules that have been cloned in vectors.
B-DNA definition: A duplex of DNA is formed by two complementary chains that are arranged in an anti-parallel manner. B-DNA is about 20 Angstrom in diameter and a right-handed double helix with a wide major groove easily accessible to proteins and narrow minor groove. B-DNA is the most common DNA conformation in vivo and the favored conformation at high water concentrations. Base pairs are nearly perpendicular to the helix axis and sugar pucker is C2'-endo.
DNA, B-Form definition: The most common isoform of DNA found in nature. It is a right-handed helix with 10 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.338 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 1.9 nm.
DNA binding definition: Interacting selectively with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). [GOC:jl]
DNA Binding definition: Used in reference to proteins or low molecular weight solutes (ligands) that interact specifically with DNA, in either a DNA-sequence dependent or independent fashion.
AT binding definition: OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete). [GOC:go_curators]
AT DNA binding definition: Interacting selectively with oligo(A) and oligo(T) tracts of DNA (AT DNA). [GOC:jl, UniProtKB:P13483]
DNA-dependent DNA replication definition: The process whereby new strands of DNA are synthesized, using parental DNA as a template for the DNA-dependent DNA polymerases that synthesize the new strands. [ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
DNA catabolic process definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, one of the two main types of nucleic acid, consisting of a long unbranched macromolecule formed from one or two strands of linked deoxyribonucleotides, the 3'-phosphate group of each constituent deoxyribonucleotide being joined in 3',5'-phosphodiester linkage to the 5'-hydroxyl group of the deoxyribose moiety of the next one. [GOC:go_curators, ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
DNA alkylation definition: The addition of alkyl groups to many positions on all four bases of DNA. Alkylating agents can also modify the bases of incoming nucleotides in the course of DNA synthesis. [ISBN:0716735970]
DNA Alkylation definition: DNA Alkylation involves the addition of alkyl groups to any of several vulnerable positions on all four of the DNA bases. Alkylating agents can also modify the bases of incoming nucleotides in the course of DNA synthesis. (Gene Ontology and NCI)
DNA, Catenated definition: CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.
DNA, Concatenated definition: Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.
DNA, Cruciform definition: A cross-shaped DNA structure that can be observed under the electron microscope. It is formed by the incomplete exchange of strands between two double-stranded helices or by complementary INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES that refold into hairpin loops on opposite strands across from each other.
DNA definition: OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete). [GOC:ai]
DNA, Algal definition: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of ALGAE.
DNA Adduction definition: DNA Adduction mainly involves formation of a covalent bond between a small electrophilic molecule and the DNA macromolecule. The reaction of xenobiotics with DNA appears to be one of the most important and common adduction events in the initiation of cancer.
DNA ligation during DNA-dependent DNA replication definition: The re-formation of a broken phosphodiester bond in the DNA backbone, carried out by DNA ligase, as occurs during DNA-dependent DNA replication. [GOC:ai]
DNA Cleavage definition: A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.
DNA Breaks definition: Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA.
DNA definition: [1] Abkürzung für desoxyribonucleic acid (dt.: Desoxyribonukleinsäure) [2] Initialen des britischen Schriftstellers Douglas Noël Adams
DNA definition: ADN, acide désoxyribonucléique.
 
 
deGerman
DNS definition: [1] (Biologie) Abkürzung für 'D'esoxyribo'n'uklein's'äure [2] (Physik) Abkürzung für 'D'irekte 'N'umerische 'S'imulation
 
srSerbian
DNK definition: [1] Abkürzung für 'd'ezoksiribo'n'ukleinska 'k'iselina (Desoxyribonukleinsäure)
ДНК definition: [1] Abkürzung für 'д'езоксирибо'н'уклеинска 'к'иселина (Desoxyribonukleinsäure)
 
frFrench
biopuce definition: Ensemble de molécules d’ADN fixées en rangées sur une petite surface, permettant de quantifier le niveau d’expression des gènes.
puce à gènes definition: Ensemble de molécules d’ADN fixées en rangées sur une petite surface, permettant de quantifier le niveau d’expression des gènes.
puce à ADN definition: Ensemble de molécules d’ADN fixées en rangées sur une petite surface, permettant de quantifier le niveau d’expression des gènes.