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Definition
 
enEnglish
genetic carrier definition: an individual who is heterozygous for a recessive gene and thus does not express the recessive phenotype but can transmit the gene to offspring.
Conjugation, Genetic definition: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Epistasis, Genetic definition: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Gene Expression Regulation definition: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
regulation of gene expression definition: Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA into protein. Some protein processing events may be included when they are required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form. [GOC:dph, GOC:tb]
Gene Regulation definition: 1) Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action at the level of transcription or translation. These processes include gene activation and genetic induction. 2) In relation to the structure and organization of a gene; refers to the regulatory elements that segregate with, and act on, a gene in a cis fashion.
Gene Regulation definition: Any subcellular or molecular event or process that regulates transcription of a gene or processing of the transcription product. (NCI)
Genetic Code definition: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Genetic Counseling definition: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.
genetic counseling definition: educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them; the purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs; psychosocial support is usually offered.
genetic counseling definition: A communication process between a specially trained health professional and a person concerned about the genetic risk of disease. The person's family and personal medical history may be discussed, and counseling may lead to genetic testing.
Genetic Counseling definition: The process whereby an expert in hereditary disorders provides information about risk and clinical burden of a disorder or disorders to patients or relatives in families with genetic disorders as an aid to making informed and responsible decisions about marriage, children, early diagnosis, and handling disability.
Genetic Engineering definition: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Genetic Engineering definition: The technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism.
genetics definition: Used for mechanisms of heredity and the genetics of organisms, for the genetic basis of normal and pathologic states, and for the genetic aspects of endogenous chemicals. It includes biochemical and molecular influence on genetic material.
Genetics, Biochemical definition: A branch of genetics which deals with the chemical structure of the genes and with the mechanisms by which the genes control and regulate the structure and synthesis of proteins.
genetic disorder definition: general term for any disorder caused by a genetic mechanism, comprising chromosome aberrations or anomalies, mendelian or monogenic or single-gene disorders, and multifactorial disorders; note that all genetic disorders are not treed under this term; see RTs for others; in addition, many disorders not treed here or under RTs may have a genetic component.
Genetic Disorder definition: Genetic Diseases are diseases in which inherited genes predispose to increased risk. The genetic disorders associated with cancer often result from an alteration or mutation in a single gene. The diseases range from rare dominant cancer family syndrome to familial tendencies in which low-penetrance genes may interact with other genes or environmental factors to induce cancer. Research may involve clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory studies of persons, families, and populations at high risk of these disorders.
Hereditary Diseases definition: Diseases caused by genetic mutations that are inherited from a parent's genome.
Mutation definition: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
mutation definition: Any change in the DNA of a cell. Mutations may be caused by mistakes during cell division, or they may be caused by exposure to DNA-damaging agents in the environment. Mutations can be harmful, beneficial, or have no effect. If they occur in cells that make eggs or sperm, they can be inherited; if mutations occur in other types of cells, they are not inherited. Certain mutations may lead to cancer or other diseases.
Mutation definition: Permanent, transmissible changes in the genetic material of an organism. Mutations can range from a single base change to the loss of a significant portion of a chromosome. These occur when DNA is not repaired prior to replication. Mutations in germ cells can be inherited. However, in somatic cells, they are not inherited. Somatic mutations can arise via exposure to chemical mutagens or ionizing radiation. These fixed changes in the genetic material can, in some cases, lead to cancer or other diseases.
Genetic Variation definition: The phenotypic and genotypic differences among individuals in a population.
Genetic Variation definition: Genetic Variation consists of deviation(s) in the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material of an individual from that typical of the group to which the individual belongs, or deviation(s) in the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material of offspring from that of its parents.
Molecular Abnormality definition: Abnormalities that occur in human cells and tissues and models of human cancer.
genetic definition: Inherited; having to do with information that is passed from parents to offspring through genes in sperm and egg cells.
Genetic definition: Having to do with information that is passed from parents to offspring through genes in sperm and egg cells.
Genetic Enhancement definition: The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.
Anticipation, Genetic definition: The apparent tendency of certain diseases to appear at earlier AGE OF ONSET and with increasing severity in successive generations. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Databases, Genetic definition: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Genetic Epidemiology definition: The epidemiological evaluation of the role of inherited causes of disease in families and in populations; it aims to detect the inheritance pattern of a particular disease, localize the gene and find a marker associated with disease susceptibility. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are also studied in genetic epidemiology of a disease. In its broad context, genetic epidemiology includes family studies, molecular epidemiologic studies with genetic components, and more traditional cohort and case-control studies with family history components.
Genetic Epidemiology definition: Interdisciplinary clinical, epidemiologic, genetic, and laboratory studies of persons, families, and populations at high risk of cancer. These investigations identify genes and exposures conferring cancer predisposition, and explore the combined effects of predisposition and specific exposures. (from DCEG homepage)
Genetic Drift definition: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
Genetic Drift definition: The random change of the occurrence of a particular gene in a population, genetic drift is thought to be one cause of speciation when a group of organisms is separated from its parent population. (NCI)
Genetic Determinism definition: The theory that human CHARACTER and BEHAVIOR are shaped by the GENES that comprise the individual's GENOTYPE rather than by CULTURE; ENVIRONMENT; and individual choice.
Epigenesis, Genetic definition: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Genetic Programming definition: A method for obtaining an optimal programming algorithm. Thousands of randomly created programs are progressively evolved over time using an evolutionary search based on the principle of survival of the fittest. Mechanisms include the equivalent of recombination, mutation, duplication, deletion, etc.
Genetic Alert definition: Proposed therapy may be inappropriate or contraindicated due to patient genetic indicators.
Molecular Genetic Abnormality definition: Any alteration in the inherited nucleic acid sequence of the genotype of an organism.
Forensic Genetics definition: The application of genetic analyses and MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES to legal matters and crime analysis.
Genetic Phenomena definition: The processes, properties and biological objects that are involved in maintaining, expressing, and transmitting from one organism to another, genetically encoded traits.
Genetic Fitness definition: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
 
 
deGerman
Gendoping definition: [1] theoretische Möglichkeit von Doping durch Manipulation von Genen
genetisch definition: [1] Biologie: die Gene betreffend [2] von den Genen verursacht
 
ocOccitan (post 1500); Provençal
genetic definition: [1] Biologie: genetisch, die Vererbungslehre betreffend
 
caCatalan
genètic definition: [1] Biologie: genetisch, die Vererbungslehre betreffend
 
frFrench
génétique definition: Science du vivant qui étudie la transmission des caractères héréditaires.