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5'-Nucleotidase definition: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.
5' Nucleotidase definition: A class of enzymes present in various organs and in many cells that catalyze the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. Serum 5'-N'Tase is measured as an indicator of liver damage resulting primarily from interference with the secretion of bile. Serum 5'-N'Tase is not as sensitive as some other enzymes (for example, ALP, AST, and ALT) to liver damage, but it is a more liver-specific enzyme. The level of this enzyme parallels alkaline phosphatase (ALP). It is used mostly to differentiate elevations in the above enzymes due to liver damage from damage to skeletal muscle.
Acid Phosphatase definition: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.
Alkaline Phosphatase definition: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE definition: A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes (granular leukocytes stainable by neutral dyes). The cytochemical identification of alkaline phosphatase depends on the formation of blue granules in cells containing alkaline phosphatase. The results of this test are used to differentiate chronic granulocytic leukemia (a malignant disease characterized by excessive overgrowth of granulocytes in the bone marrow) and reactions that resemble true leukemia, such as those occuring in severe infections and polycythemia (increased total red cell mass).
Alkaline Phosphatase definition: An enzyme that catalyses the cleavage of inorganic phosphate non-specifically from a wide variety of phosphate esters and having a high (greater than 8) pH optimum.
Histidinol-Phosphatase definition: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of histidinol-phosphate to histidinol. One of the regulatory enzymes in histidine biosynthesis. EC 3.1.3.15.
4-Nitrophenylphosphatase definition: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.2); at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.1). EC 3.1.3.41.
Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases definition: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
phosphomonoesterase definition: a group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate.
Phosphatase definition: A class of enzymes that catalyze the removal of phosphate groups from their substrates.
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide)-Phosphatase definition: (Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide))-phosphate phosphohydrolase. A mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of a phosphate on a specific seryl hydroxyl group of pyruvate dehydrogenase, reactivating the enzyme complex. EC 3.1.3.43.
Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase definition: A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.
Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1 definition: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
Alkaline Phosphatase Measurement definition: A quantitative measurement of alkaline phosphatase present in a sample.
Alkaline Phosphatase definition: A measurement of the alkaline phosphatase in a biological specimen.
cdc25 Phosphatases definition: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
Dual Specificity Phosphatase 2 definition: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CELL NUCLEUS.
Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6 definition: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CYTOSOL.
Cell Division Cycle 25A Protein definition: Cell Division Cycle 25A Protein (CDC25A), encodes by the CDC25A gene, is a member of the CDC25 family of phosphatases. CDC25A is required for progression from G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. It activates the cyclin-dependent kinase CDC2 by removing two phosphate groups. CDC25A is specifically degraded in response to DNA damage, which prevents cells with chromosomal abnormalities from progressing through cell division. The CDC25A gene is an oncogene, although its exact role in oncogenesis has not been demonstrated. (RefSeq Summary)
phosphatase inhibitor definition: any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the action of the hydrolase class of enzymes that are phosphoric monoester hydrolases which catalyzing the release of inorganic phosphate from phosphoric esters.
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 22 definition: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal PROLINE-rich domain. The phosphatase subtype is predominantly expressed in LYMPHOCYTES and plays a key role in the inhibition of downstream T-LYMPHOCYTE activation. Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes this phosphatase subtype are associated with a variety of AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
phosphatase binding definition: Interacting selectively with any phosphatase. [GOC:jl]
phosphatase activity definition: Catalysis of the hydrolysis of phosphoric monoesters, releasing inorganic phosphate. [http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/]
inositol trisphosphate phosphatase activity definition: Catalysis of the removal of one of the three phosphate groups of an inositol trisphosphate. [GOC:bf]
inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate phosphatase definition: OBSOLETE. The removal of one of the phosphate groups from an inositol triphosphate to produce an inositol bisphosphate. [GOC:hb]
PTPN22 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in the regulation of the immune system, the development of autoimmunity and the cellular response to pathogens.