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Abortifacient Agents definition: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
abortifacient definition: class of drugs which induce abortion.
Adrenergic Agents definition: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
adrenergic agent definition: drugs that selectively bind to and activate adrenergic receptors or mimic the actions of adrenergic transmitters; for adrenergic antagonists, see ANTIADRENERGIC AGENT.
Adrenergic Agent definition: Refer to a class of agents that acts upon adrenergic receptors associated with activities of Sympathetic Nerve System. The adrenergic receptors (adrenoceptors) belongs to the family of seven membrane spanning domain receptors that require G protein signaling pathway. (NCI04)
Alkylating Agents definition: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
alkylating agent definition: chemical agent that can add alkyl groups (for example, ethyl or methyl groups) to another molecule; many mutagens act through alkylation.
alkylating agents definition: A family of anticancer drugs that interferes with the cell's DNA and inhibits cancer cell growth.
Alkylating Agent definition: Agents that replace hydrogen atom(s) in biologically active molecules with alky radical(s), hindering proper function. Alkylating agents exhibit cytotoxic effects through the alkylation of DNA, resulting in strand cross-linking, ultimately inhibiting DNA replication and cell growth.
Analgesics definition: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
analgesic definition: compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of consciousness or without producing anesthesia.
analgesics definition: Drugs that reduce pain. These drugs include aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen.
Analgesic Preparation definition: Natural or synthetic compound mixtures, Analgesic Preparations relieve pain by altering the perception of nociceptive stimuli without loss of consciousness. Analgesic compounds may act at opioid receptors (morphine-like drugs) or at other central or peripheral sites (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents). (NCI04)
Analgesic Agent definition: Compounds that alleviate pain without loss of consciousness. Analgesics act by various mechanisms including binding with opioid receptors and decreasing inflammation. Choice of analgesic may be determined by the type of pain. These compounds include opioid, non-opioid and adjuvant analgesic agents.
Androgens definition: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
androgen definition: compounds that interact with androgen receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of testosterone; depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on sexual differentiation, male reproductive organs, spermtogenesis, secondary male sex characteristics, libido, development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
androgen definition: (AN-dro-jens) A family of hormones that promote the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics.
Therapeutic Androgen definition: A class of sex hormones associated with the development and maintenance of the secondary male sex characteristics, sperm induction, and sexual differentiation. In addition to increasing virility and libido, they also increase nitrogen and water retention and stimulate skeletal growth. (MeSH)
Anesthetics definition: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
anesthetic definition: agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain; may act to induce general anesthesia, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
anesthetics definition: (an-es-THET-iks) Substances that cause loss of feeling or awareness. Local anesthetics cause loss of feeling in a part of the body. General anesthetics put the person to sleep.
Anesthetic Agent definition: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general anesthesia, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site. (MeSH)
antirheumatic agent definition: agent that relieves or prevents rheumatic disease, especially rheumatoid arthritis.
Antirheumatic Agents definition: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents definition: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.
antiarrhythmic agent definition: group of agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias; they may effect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers.
Antiarrhythmic Agent definition: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias; they may effect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers.
arrhythmic agent definition: agent causing or promoting cardiac arrhythmias.
Anti-Infective Agents definition: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
antiinfective agent definition: substances that kill or prevent the spreading of infectious agents or organisms in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Anti-Infective Agent definition: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection. (MeSH)
Anti-infective Preparation definition: For internal or topical application, Anti-infective Preparations contain natural or synthetic antibiotic agents that act therapeutically or prophylactically against infectious viral, bacterial, protozoal, or other agents by inhibiting their growth, replication, and survival. Usually, antiinfective preparations are formulated sterile. (NCI04)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents definition: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
antiinflammatory agent definition: agent that counteracts or suppresses the inflammatory process.
Anticestodal Agents definition: Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.
Anticholesteremic Agents definition: Substances used to lower plasma cholesterol levels.
antihypercholesterolemic agent definition: agents which reduce or control high cholesterol and bring about lower cholesterol levels in both the blood and the liver.
Anticoagulants definition: Agents that prevent blood clotting. Naturally occurring agents in the blood are included only when they are used as drugs.
anticoagulant definition: externally administered agents that prevent blood clotting.
blood thinner definition: A drug that helps prevent blood clots from forming. Also called a blood thinner.
Anticonvulsants definition: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
anticonvulsant definition: agent used to prevent seizures or reduce their severity.
anticonvulsants definition: (an-tee-kon-VUL-sants) Drugs that prevent, reduce, or stop convulsions or seizures.
Anticonvulsant Agent definition: Medicine to stop, prevent, or control seizures (convulsions).
Antidepressive Agents definition: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
antidepressant definition: mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions.
antidepressant definition: A drug used to treat depression.
Antidepressant Agent definition: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several monoamine oxidase inhibitors are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems. (MeSH)
Antidiarrheals definition: Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.
Antidiarrheal Agent definition: Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition. (MeSH)
Antiemetics definition: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING. Antiemetics act by a wide range of mechanisms. Some act on the medullary control centers (the vomiting center and the chemoreceptive trigger zone) while others affect the peripheral receptors.
antiemetic definition: drugs used to prevent nausea or vomiting; act by a wide range of mechanisms; some act on the medullary control centers while others effect the peripheral receptors.
antiemetics definition: Drugs that prevent or reduce nausea and vomiting.
Antiemetic Agent definition: Drugs used to prevent nausea or vomiting. Antiemetics act by a wide range of mechanisms. Some act on the medullary control centers (the vomiting center and the chemoreceptive trigger zone) while others affect the peripheral receptors. (MeSH)
Antifibrinolytic Agents definition: Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.
antifibrinolytic agent definition: agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus; several endogenous antiplasmins are known; these agents are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.
Antifoaming Agents definition: Agents used to prevent the formation of foam or to treat flatulence or bloat.
Antifungal Agents definition: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
antifungal agent definition: substances that are destructive to fungi, suppress their reproduction or growth, or are effective against fungal infection.
antifungals definition: Drugs that treat infections caused by fungi.
Antifungal Agent definition: Substances that treat systemic or topical infections caused by fungi. Antifungal agents kill or inhibit the growth of fungi, by various mechanisms. Mechanisms include inhibition of fungal mitosis, impairing synthesis or binding to ergosterol, incorporation into RNA or DNA synthesis inhibition.
Antihypertensive Agents definition: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
antihypertensive agent definition: agent that reduces high blood pressure.
Antihypertensive Agent definition: Any substance used in the treatment of acute or chronic hypertension regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Antihypertensive agents include diuretics, alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, ganglionic blockers, and vasodilator agents.
Antilipemic Agents definition: Substances used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
antihyperlipoproteinemic agent definition: agent that promotes a reduction of lipoprotein levels in the blood.
Antimalarials definition: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
antimalarial agent definition: agent used in the treatment or prevention of malaria.
Antimalarial Agent definition: Agents used to treat malaria, and are usually classified based on action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human.
antimitotic definition: agent that inhibits or prevents mitosis.
mitotic inhibitors definition: Drugs that kill cancer cells by interfering with cell division (mitosis).
Antimitotic Agents definition: Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Muscarinic Antagonists definition: Drugs that bind to but do not activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC), thereby blocking the actions of endogenous acetylcholine or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system. Antagonists that discriminate among the various muscarinic receptor subtypes and might allow better control of peripheral and central actions are under development.
Antimuscarinic Agent definition: Natural or synthetic Antimuscarinic Agents inhibit acetylcholine neurotransmitter action at muscarinic receptors. Antimuscarinic drugs are used as antiarrhythmic, antiparkinson, antiasthmatic, and antispasmodic agents, as well as antidote of the natural mushroom alkaloid muscarine (Amanita muscaria) or to prevent parasympathetic stimulation at neuroeffector junctions. (NCI04)
Antinematodal Agents definition: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
Antineoplastic Agents definition: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
antineoplastic definition: agent that inhibits or prevents the development or proliferation of neoplasms.
chemotherapeutic agent definition: A drug used to treat cancer.
chemotherapeutic agent definition: A substance that blocks the formation of neoplasms (growths that may become cancerous).
ANTINEOPLASTICS definition: NOTE: Includes hormones (AN500) which are exclusively used as antineoplastics (e.g.,tamoxifen). Excludes other hormones (HS000).
Antineoplastic Agent definition: A substance that inhibits the maturation, growth or spread of tumor cells.
Antiparasitic Agents definition: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
antiparasitics definition: Drugs used to treat bacterial and parasitic infections and some cancers.
ANTIPARASITICS definition: NOTE: Includes topical pediculicides (AP300).
antiparasitic agent definition: drug or agent used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
Antiparkinson Agents definition: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
antiparkinson drug definition: agent used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease; the most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
Antiplatyhelmintic Agents definition: Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.
Antiprotozoal Agents definition: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
antiprotozoal agent definition: substance that destroys protozoans, or that prevents their growth or reproduction.
Antiprotozoal Agent definition: Substances that are destructive to protozoans. (MeSH)
Antipruritics definition: Agents, usually topical, that relieve itching (pruritus).
Antisickling Agents definition: Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle cell conditions.
Antispermatogenic Agents definition: Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
spermatogenesis inhibitor definition: any agent or substance which suppresses, prevents or opposes the formation of spermatozoa.
Antitreponemal Agents definition: Agents used to treat infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA. This includes SYPHILIS & YAWS.
Antitrichomonal Agents definition: Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.
Antitubercular Agents definition: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
antitubercular agent definition: drug used in the treatment of tuberculosis.
antituberculosis definition: Having to do with a drug used to treat tuberculosis.
Antitussive Agents definition: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.
Antitussive Agent definition: Any substance that is capable of relieving or suppressing coughing.
Antiviral Agents definition: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
antiviral agent definition: drug that destroys viruses or prevents their growth or replication.
antivirals definition: Drugs used to treat infections caused by viruses.
Miscellaneous Antiviral Agent definition: Antiviral agents that have a non-specific classification.
Autonomic Agents definition: Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.
autonomic agent definition: agent effecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.
Bronchodilator Agents definition: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
bronchodilator definition: agent that causes an expansion of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
Cholinesterase Inhibitors definition: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
cholinesterase inhibitor definition: any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the action of cholinesterase resulting in the potentiation of the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses; cholinesterase inhibition is associated with a variety of acute symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, stomach cramps, and rapid heart rate.
Dermatologic Agents definition: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.
DERMATOLOGICAL AGENTS definition: NOTE: The topical anti-inflammatory subclassification (DE200) includes all single-entity anti-inflammatory agents and all combinations containing an adrenocorticoid except those which also contain anti-infective agent (DE250) or an antipsoriatic agent (DE802). The topical antipsoriatic subclassification (DE802) includes products containing adrenocorticoids in combination with coal tar or salicylic acid and products containing coal tar. The "anti-infective, topical other" subclassification (DE109) includes products containing combinations of agents from any one or more subclassification of anti-infectives, topical (DE101, DE102, DE103). Topical pediculicides are included under class AP300.
Gout Suppressants definition: Agents that increase uric acid excretion by the kidney (URICOSURIC AGENTS), decrease uric acid production (antihyperuricemics), or alleviate the pain and inflammation of acute attacks of gout.
gout drug definition: agents used in prevention or treatment of gout; they may increase uric acid excretion, decrease uric acid production, or alleviate the pain and inflammation of acute attacks of gout.
Leprostatic Agents definition: Substances that suppress Mycobacterium leprae, ameliorate the clinical manifestations of leprosy, and/or reduce the incidence and severity of leprous reactions.
Serotonin Antagonists definition: Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or serotonin agonists.
antispasmodic agent definition: agent that relieves spasm, usually of smooth muscles as in arteries, bronchi, intestine, bile duct, or ureters, but also of voluntary muscle.
Antispasmotic Agent definition: Natural or synthetic Antispasmodic Agents (commonly anticholinergic) relieve spasms or cramps of the stomach, intestines, and bladder. These agents often decrease secretions (acid and enzymes) and movements of the stomach and intestine. (NCI04)
thyroid inhibitor definition: any agent or substance which suppresses, prevents or opposes the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones.
Antithyroid Agents definition: Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.
Antipsychotic Agents definition: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in schizophrenia, senile dementia, transient psychosis following surgery or myocardial infarction, etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
antipsychotic agent definition: class of drugs used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia and other psychotic behavior; includes neuroleptics.
Antipsychotic Agent definition: Also known as neuroleptics, major tranquilizers, or antischizophrenics, natural or synthetic. Antipsychotic Agents relieve and control the symptoms of schizophrenic illness (hallucinations, delusions, dementia). Most antipsychotic agents interfere with various neurotransmitter functions, often blocking dopamine receptors, and induce diverse behavioral, endocrine, motor-kinetic effects. (NCI04)
Anti-Anxiety Agents definition: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. Some are also effective as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, or anesthesia adjuvants. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
anxiolytic definition: A medicine used to treat anxiety or muscle spasms.
Bronchoconstrictor Agents definition: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
bronchoconstrictor definition: agent causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
Antimutagenic Agents definition: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
Anticarcinogenic Agents definition: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved. They differ from antineoplastic agents in that they prevent neoplasms from forming. The anticarcinogenic substances can be divided into three categories. The first consists of compounds that prevent the formation of carcinogens from precursor substances. The second group consists of "blocking agents" which inhibit carcinogenesis by preventing carcinogenic agents from reaching or reacting with critical target sites in the tissues. The third group is the "suppressor agents" which act by suppression of expression of neoplasia in cells previously exposed to carcinogens that would otherwise cause neoplasms.
Antiplatelet Agent definition: An agent that inhibits platelet aggregation and reduces coagulation in the circulatory system.
antiadrenergic agent definition: group of drugs that bind to but do not activate adrenergic receptors; they block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters epinepherine and norepinepherine.
Adrenergic Antagonists definition: Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
Cholinergic Agents definition: Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
cholinergic agent definition: drug used for its actions in stimulating cholinergic systems.
anticholinergic agent definition: group of drugs that bind to but do not activate cholinergic receptors, thereby blocking the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists.
Antimanic Agents definition: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.
antibacterial agent definition: substance that destroys bacteria or prevents their growth or replication.
Antibacterial Agent definition: A family of substances capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of bacteria.
Anti-Bacterial Agents definition: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Anti-Allergic Agents definition: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)
antiallergic agent definition: group of agents that are used to treat allergic reactions; most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells.
Anti-Asthmatic Agents definition: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.
Anti-asthmatic Agent definition: Classified as bronchodilators (beta-adrenoreceptor agonists, xanthines, muscarinic-receptor antagonists) and anti-inflammatory agents (glucocorticoids, cromolyn), natural or synthetic Anti-asthmatic Agents relieve asthma (a recurrent airway obstruction) in multiple ways and at various sites, by reducing bronchial spasm, dyspnea, allergic reaction, local inflammation, and pain. Other agents, such as anti-histamine and antibiotics, may also be used in asthma. (NCI04)
Anti-Obesity Agents definition: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
angiogenesis inhibitor definition: A substance that may prevent the formation of blood vessels. In anticancer therapy, an angiogenesis inhibitor prevents the growth of blood vessels from surrounding tissue to a solid tumor.
angiogenesis inhibitor definition: agents or endogenous substances that suppress, prevent, or oppose the development of new blood vessels.
Angiogenesis Inhibitors definition: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Angiogenesis Inhibitor definition: An agent or endogenous substance that inhibits the formation and growth of blood or lymphatic vessels. In cancer therapy, angiogenesis inhibitors target blood vessels that supply tumors, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. (NCI04)
Anti-Retroviral Agents definition: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Anti-diabetic Agent definition: Any substance used to reduce hyperglycemia or treat disorders associated with diabetes. Based on their mechanism of action, this class of agents can be classified to the following groups: directly acting insulomimetics, which activates insulin receptors; indirectly acting insulinomimetics, which increase insulin release such as sulfonylureas or which potentiate the effect of insulin such as metformin; those act directly on the metabolism of glucose such as inhibitors of glucosidases and inhibitors of aldose reductase.
Aneugens definition: Agents which affect CELL DIVISION and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS resulting in the loss or gain of whole CHROMOSOMES, thereby inducing an ANEUPLOIDY.
ANTIMICROBIALS definition: NOTE: Combination products containing two or more active ingredients from the same subclassification are classified in that subclassification (e.g.,triple sulfas in AM650). Products containing two or more active ingredients from different subclassifications are classified under "anti-infectives, other" (e.g., tetracycline and amphotericin B (AM900). Products containing probenecid or clavulanic acid are classified under the subclassification of the antimicrobial agent. Beta-lactam antibiotics not classified under penicillins or cephalosporins are classified (AM130). Excludes topical anti-infectives (DE100), topical anti- infective/anti-inflammatory combinations (DE250), ophthalmic anti-infectives (OP200), ophthalmic anti- infective/anti-inflammatory combinations (OP350), otic anti-infectives (OT100), otic anti-infective/anti- inflammatory combinations (OT250); vaginal anti- infectives (GU300).
Microbicides definition: Generically, any agent that destroys microbes. However, usage of the term is increasingly being confined to agents that prevent or reduce the transmission of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES.
Bacteriocidal Agents definition: Substances that kill BACTERIA.
Anabolic Agents definition: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Antidiuretic Agents definition: Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.
cardiotoxin definition: any agent which has a toxic effect on the heart.
Cardiotoxins definition: Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins.
Antistatic Agents definition: Chemical compounds applied to materials to reduce their retention of an electrostatic charge.