dict.md logo
Choose languages of interest
SELECT >>
English
German
Slovenian
Hungarian
Romanian
 
Add further languages:
Add all languages
Advertisement:
Definition
 
enEnglish
Antigens definition: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
antigen definition: any substance recognized by the immune system and inducing an immune reaction.
antigens definition: Substances that cause the immune system to make a specific immune response.
Antigen definition: Any substance, generally a protein, that stimulates the immune system and elicits an immune response. Recognition by the immune system elicits either a T-lymphocyte response, recognizing processed antigens, or a B-lymphocyte response, producing antibodies that bind to unprocessed antigens.
CA-125 Antigen definition: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
CA 125 definition: A substance sometimes found in an increased amount in the blood, other body fluids, or tissues and that may suggest the presence of some types of cancer.
CA-125 Antigen definition: An antigen expressed by tissues derived from mullerian epithelium (tubal, endometrial and endocervical) or celomic epithelium (mesothelial cells of the pleura, pericardium and peritoneum). Although its biochemical nature has not been clearly defined, CA125 has been described as a glycosylated, high-molecular-weight protein that may be released from damaged cells. Measurable in plasma, CA125 is a sensitive, nonspecific tumor marker for ovarian cancer; as such it is much more useful for monitoring clinical responses to the treatment of ovarian cancer than for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Elevated plasma CA125 may occur in association with other malignancies and non-malignant gynecologic disorders. (NCI04)
mucin/peptide definition: A protein/sugar compound made by some cancer cells.
Mucin-1 definition: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
MUC-1 antigen definition: MUC-1 antigen is a mammary-type apomucin, a high molecular weight transmembrane glycoprotein, of which the extracellular domain is formed by a repeating 20 amino acid sequence (in tandem) with a high content of serine and threonine on which are O-linked carbohydrate chains. MUC-1 synthesis and secretion are features of glandular epithelial tissues, and is overexpressed in lactating breast and in breast, ovary, lung, and prostate malignancies. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42454&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42454&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C2407" NCI Thesaurus)
MUC-1 Antigen definition: A cancer vaccine comprised of a synthetic peptide derived from the mucin 1 (MUC-1) antigen with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, MUC-1 peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells positive for the MUC-1 antigen, resulting in decreased tumor growth. Overexpressed on many tumor cells, MUC-1 antigen, a mammary-type apomucin, is a high-molecular-weight transmembrane glycoprotein.
CA-19-9 Antigen definition: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
CA19-9 Antigen definition: CA 19-9 is a fucosylated gycosphingolipid carbohydrate antigen that is soluble and is adsorbed to erythrocytes and to many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors. By structure CA 19-9 is related to the Lewis blood group antigens.
Calgranulin A definition: A 10.8-kDa member of the S-100 family of calcium-binding proteins that can form homo- or heterocomplexes with CALGRANULIN B and a variety of other proteins. The calgranulin A/B heterodimer is known as LEUKOCYTE L1 ANTIGEN COMPLEX. Calgranulin A is found in many cell types including GRANULOCYTES; KERATINOCYTES; and myelomonocytes, and has been shown to act as a chemotactic substance for NEUTROPHILS. Because it is present in acute inflammation but absent in chronic inflammation, it is a useful biological marker for a number of pathological conditions.
S100 Calcium Binding Protein A8 definition: Constitutively expressed in epithelial cells and in macrophages during chronic inflammation by human S100A8 Gene (S100 Family), 93-aa 11-kDa homodimeric S100 Calcium Binding Protein A8, containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs, may interact with intermediate filament components and function in casein kinase inhibition. (NCI)
Calgranulin B definition: A 13.2-kDa member of the S-100 family of calcium-binding proteins that can form homo- or heterocomplexes with CALGRANULIN A and a variety of other proteins. The calgranulin A/B heterodimer is known as LEUKOCYTE L1 ANTIGEN COMPLEX. Calgranulin B is expressed at high concentrations in GRANULOCYTES during early monocyte differentiation, and serum calgranulin B levels are elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as CYSTIC FIBROSIS.
S100 Calcium Binding Protein A9 definition: Constitutively expressed in epithelial cells and in macrophages within inflamed tissues by human S100A9 Gene (S100 Family), 114-aa 13-kDa S100 Calcium Binding Protein A9, containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs, may inhibit protein kinases and interact with intermediate filament components. Altered expression of S100A9 is associated with cystic fibrosis. (NCI)
Antigens, CD29 definition: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Sperm Adhesion Molecule 1 definition: Hyaluronidase degrades hyaluronic acid, a major structural proteoglycan found in extracellular matrices and basement membranes. Six members of the hyaluronidase family are clustered into two tightly linked groups on chromosome 3p21.3 and 7q31.3. This gene encodes a GPI-anchored enzyme located on the human sperm surface and inner acrosomal membrane. This multifunctional protein is a hyaluronidase that enables sperm to penetrate through the hyaluronic acid-rich cumulus cell layer surrounding the oocyte, a receptor that plays a role in hyaluronic acid induced cell signaling, and a receptor that is involved in sperm-zona pellucida adhesion. Abnormal expression of this gene in tumors has implicated this protein in degradation of basement membranes leading to tumor invasion and metastasis. (from LocusLink)
Neuropilin-1 definition: Dimeric cell surface receptor involved in angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL) and axonal guidance. Neuropilin-1 is a 140-kDa transmembrane protein that binds CLASS 3 SEMAPHORINS, and several other growth factors. Neuropilin-1 forms complexes with plexins or VEGF RECEPTORS, and binding affinity and specificity are determined by the composition of the neuropilin dimer and the identity of other receptors complexed with it. Neuropilin-1 is expressed in distinct patterns during neural development, complementary to those described for NEUROPILIN-2.
Neuropilin 1 definition: Encoded by human NRP1 Gene (Neuropilin Family), Neuropilin 1 contains 1 MAM, 2 F5/8 type C, and 2 CUB domains. Found in embryonic nervous system, and adult heart, placenta lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and pancreas, type I membrane-bound 923-aa 103-kDa (precursor) isoform 1, expressed by blood vessels, acts as a receptor in cardiovascular development, angiogenesis, formation of neuronal circuits, and organogenesis. Binding to semaphorin 3A, PLGF-2, VEGF-165, and VEGF-B, Isoform 1 appears to mediate chemorepulsion by semaphorins, to increase VEGF-165 binding to KDR, and to regulate VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Expressed in hepatocytes and kidney distal/proximal tubules, secreted 644-aa isoform 2 may bind semaphorins and induce apoptosis by sequestering VEGF-165; it has an adverse effect on blood vessel integrity. Expression of isoforms 1 and 2 does not seem to overlap. (NCI)
Integrin alpha6beta4 definition: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
Antigens, CD98 definition: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
Kangai 1 Protein definition: Kangai 1 Protein, a metastasis suppressor protein encoded by the 80 kb human KAI1 gene (TM4SF family), is expressed in many tissues and has four putative transmembrane domains and a large extracellular domain having three potential N-glycosylation sites. KAI1 appears to be up regulated in activated T-cells. p53 activates the gene by interacting with sequences in a 5-prime upstream region. Loss of p53 appears to cause down-regulation of KAI1. Similar to leukocyte cell surface glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion and signal transduction, KAI1 is a likely homologue of mouse leukocyte surface antigen R2. Associated with CD4 or CD8, KAI1 delivers co-stimulatory signals for the TCR/CD3 pathway. KAI1 expression at the transcription or posttranscription level is often down regulated during tumor progression. (from SWISS-PROT, OMIM, and NCI)
Kangai-1 Protein definition: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is under-expressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Centromere Protein F definition: Mitosin is a nuclear matrix homo- or heterodimeric protein that is associated with kinetochores from the onset of M phase to metaphase, with accumulation mitosin peaking in G2/M phase. It is rapidly degraded after mitosis. Mitosin may be involved in chromosome segregation and kinetochore function. It interacts with RB, CENP-E, and BUBR1. (from SWISS-PROT P49454, OMIM 600236, and NCI)
VE-Cadherin definition: VE-cadherin (784 aa, 88 kD) is a cell adhesion process protein that is encoded by the human CDH5 gene and has a role in homophilic cell adhesion.
Natural Killer Cells Antigen CD94 definition: Natural killer cells antigen CD94 (179 aa, 20 kD) is a cell communication protein that is encoded by the human KLRD1 gene and has a role in cell surface receptor-linked signal transduction.
CYFRA 21-1 definition: A fragment of cytokeratin 19. A tumor marker. Reported to be a sensitive serum marker of recurrent breast cancer. May also be a good prognostic marker, with patients with high serum levels of the marker having shorter disease-free survival. (from Cancer 2000;89:1285-1290 via Medscape)
Integrin Beta-3 definition: Integrin beta-3 (788 aa, 87 kD) is a cell adhesion process protein that is encoded by the human ITGB3 gene and has roles in cell adhesion and blood coagulation.
Prominin-1 Protein definition: Prominin-1 protein (865 aa, ~97 kDa) is encoded by the human PROM1 gene. This protein may play a role in hematopoiesis, but an exact function has yet to be elucidated. The protien has been implicated in tumor pathogenesis and formation in several cancers, including retinoblastoma, hemangioma, and glioblastoma phenotypes. Additionally, the protein has been used as a marker to distinguish cells that have the potential to become cancerous from the larger normal cell population.
Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex definition: A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.
antigen binding definition: Interacting selectively with an antigen, any substance which is capable of inducing a specific immune response and of reacting with the products of that response, the specific antibody or specifically sensitized T-lymphocytes, or both. Binding may counteract the biological activity of the antigen. [GOC:jl, ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology", ISBN:0721662544 "Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary"]
Antigen Binding definition: Antigen Binding Interaction involves specific and high affinity non-covalent interaction (binding) of an endogenous antibody through intermolecular physical forces of attraction and spatial complementarity with a soluble or particulate substance (antigen) that induces an immune response.
antigen processing and presentation of endogenous antigen definition: The process by which an antigen-presenting cell expresses antigen (peptide or lipid) of endogenous origin on its cell surface in association with an MHC protein complex. [GOC:add, ISBN:0781735149 "Fundamental Immunology", PMID:15771591, PMID:15928678]
antigen processing and presentation of exogenous antigen definition: The process by which an antigen-presenting cell expresses antigen (peptide or lipid) of exogenous origin on its cell surface in association with an MHC protein complex. [GOC:add, ISBN:0781735149 "Fundamental Immunology", PMID:15771591, PMID:15928678]
antigen processing and presentation of lipid antigen via MHC class Ib definition: The process by which an antigen-presenting cell expresses lipid antigen in association with an MHC class Ib protein complex on its cell surface, including lipid extraction, degradation, and transport steps for the lipid antigen both prior to and following assembly with the MHC protein complex. The lipid antigen may originate from an endogenous or exogenous source of lipid. Class Ib here refers to non-classical class I molecules, such as those of the CD1 family. [GOC:add, PMID:10375559, PMID:15928678, PMID:15928680]
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen definition: The process by which an antigen-presenting cell expresses peptide antigen in association with an MHC protein complex on its cell surface, including proteolysis and transport steps for the peptide antigen both prior to and following assembly with the MHC protein complex. The peptide antigen is typically, but not always, processed from an endogenous or exogenous protein. [GOC:add, ISBN:0781735149 "Fundamental Immunology", PMID:15771591]
CD28 Gene definition: This gene plays several roles in cellular functions specific to the T-cell.
Antigen Gene definition: A gene that encodes a product, termed an antigen, which stimulates the immune system and results in the production of antibodies.
antigen definition: Antigène.
 
 
huHungarian
antigén definition: Antigène.
 
roRomanian
antigen definition: Antigène
 
slSlovenian
antigen definition: antigène.
antigen definition: ''Nominatif singulier du nom'' antigen.
antigen definition: ''Accusatif singulier du nom'' antigen.
 
frFrench
antigène definition: Substance étrangère à un organisme et provoquant chez celui-ci la constitution d'un anticorps.