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adverse effects definition: Used with drugs, chemicals, or biological agents in accepted dosage - or with physical agents or manufactured products in normal usage - when intended for diagnostic, therapeutic, prophylactic, or anesthetic purposes. It is used also for adverse effects or complications of diagnostic, therapeutic, prophylactic, anesthetic, surgical, or other procedures, but excludes contraindications for which "contraindications" is used.
cytology definition: Used for cellular appearance of unicellular and multicellular organisms.
Economics definition: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.
Economics definition: The branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management.
education definition: Used for education, training programs, and courses in various fields and disciplines, and for training groups of persons.
Education definition: The activities of educating or instructing or teaching; activities that impart knowledge or skill.
etiology definition: Used with diseases for causative agents including microorganisms and includes environmental and social factors and personal habits as contributing factors. It includes pathogenesis.
genetics definition: Used for mechanisms of heredity and the genetics of organisms, for the genetic basis of normal and pathologic states, and for the genetic aspects of endogenous chemicals. It includes biochemical and molecular influence on genetic material.
history definition: Used for the historical aspects of any subject. It includes brief historical notes but excludes case histories.
instrumentation definition: Used with diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, analytic techniques, and specialties or disciplines, for the development or modification of apparatus, instruments, or equipment.
Jurisprudence definition: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.
metabolism definition: Used with organs, cells and subcellular fractions, organisms, and diseases for biochemical changes and metabolism. It is used also with drugs and chemicals for catabolic changes (breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones). For anabolic processes (conversion of small molecules into large), BIOSYNTHESIS is used. For enzymology, pharmacokinetics, and secretion use the specific subheadings.
mortality definition: Used with human and veterinary diseases for mortality statistics. For deaths resulting from various procedures statistically but for a death resulting in a specific case, use FATAL OUTCOME, not /mortality.
pathogenicity definition: Used with microorganisms, viruses, and parasites for studies of their ability to cause disease in man, animals, or plants.
physiology definition: Used with organs, tissues, and cells of unicellular and multicellular organisms for normal function. It is used also with biochemical substances, endogenously produced, for their physiologic role.
poisoning definition: Used with drugs, chemicals, and industrial materials for human or animal poisoning, acute or chronic, whether the poisoning is accidental, occupational, suicidal, by medication error, or by environmental exposure.
radiation effects definition: Used for effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on drugs and chemicals.
radionuclide imaging definition: Used for radionuclide imaging of any anatomical structure, or for the diagnosis of disease.
rehabilitation definition: Used with diseases and surgical procedures for restoration of function of the individual.
surgery definition: Used for operative procedures on organs, regions, or tissues in the treatment of diseases, including tissue section by lasers. It excludes transplantation, for which "transplantation" is used.
therapy definition: Used with diseases for therapeutic interventions except drug therapy, diet therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery, for which specific subheadings exist. The concept is also used for articles and books dealing with multiple therapies.
toxicity definition: Used with drugs and chemicals for experimental human and animal studies of their ill effects. It includes studies to determine the margin of safety or the reactions accompanying administration at various dose levels. It is used also for exposure to environmental agents. Poisoning should be considered for life-threatening exposure to environmental agents.
transplantation definition: Used with organs, tissues, or cells for transplantation from one site to another within the same subject, or from one subject to another of the same species or different species.
veterinary definition: Used for naturally occurring diseases in animals, or for diagnostic, preventive, or therapeutic procedures used in veterinary medicine.
chemistry definition: Used with chemicals, biological, and non-biological substances for their composition, structure, characterization, and properties; also used for the chemical composition or content of organs, tissue, tumors, body fluids, organisms, and plants. Excludes chemical analysis and determination of substances for which "analysis" is used; excludes synthesis for which "chemical synthesis" is used; excludes isolation and purification of substances for which "isolation & purification" is used.
pathology definition: Used for organ, tissue, or cell structure in disease states.
Cost definition: The amount paid, charged, or engaged to be paid, for purchasing goods, services and financial instruments.
Degradation definition: The reduction of a chemical compound to one less complex, as by splitting off one or more groups.
Foreign Component definition: Research efforts related to foreign countries. To include: Awards to scientists or organizations outside the U.S.A.; awards to international organizations such as WHO and PAHO; Projects where funds are related to training a U.S. scientist outside the U.S.A or a non-U.S. scientist in the U.S.A.; Projects where the activity takes place outside the U.S.A.; Projects where funds are related to international exchange or international travel. (DCEG-I)
Foreign Component definition: An indication that all or part of the research on a grant to a US institution is either conducted in a foreign country, uses foreign subjects or their tissues or medical data, or involves collaboration with foreign researchers.
complications definition: Used with diseases to indicate conditions that co-exist or follow, i.e., co-existing diseases, complications, or sequelae.
immunology definition: Used for immunologic studies of tissues, organs, microorganisms, fungi, viruses, and animals. It includes immunologic aspects of diseases but not immunologic procedures used for diagnostic, preventive, or therapeutic purposes, for which "diagnosis", "prevention & control", or "therapy" are used. The concept is also used for chemicals as antigens or haptens.
deficiency definition: Used with endogenous and exogenous substances which are absent or in diminished amount relative to the normal requirement of an organism or a biologic system.