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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome definition: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
AIDS definition: one or more indicator diseases, depending on laboratory evidence of HIV infection (CDC); late phase of HIV infection characterized by marked suppression of immune function resulting in opportunistic infections, neoplasms, and other systemic symptoms (NIAID).
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome definition: An acquired defect in immune system function caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). AIDS is associated with increased susceptibility to certain cancers and to opportunistic infections, which are infections that occur rarely except in individuals with weak immune systems.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome definition: A syndrome resulting from the acquired deficiency of cellular immunity caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is characterized by the reduction of the Helper T-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the lymph nodes. Symptoms include generalized lymphadenopathy, fever, weight loss, and chronic diarrhea. Patients with AIDS are especially susceptible to opportunistic infections (usually pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, tuberculosis, candida infections, and cryptococcosis), and the development of malignant neoplasms (usually non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma). The human immunodeficiency virus is transmitted through sexual contact, sharing of contaminated needles, or transfusion of contaminated blood. -- 2004
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune definition: Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.
autoimmune hemolytic anemia definition: due to acquired antierythrocyte autoantibodies causing premature erythrocyte clearance by the spleen; antibodies can be warm or cold active; usually slow developing and treatable.
Autoantibodies definition: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
autoantibody definition: antibody directed against an individual's normal antigenic tissue constituents.
Autoantibody definition: An antibody acting against tissues of the organism that produces it.
Autoimmune Diseases definition: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
autoimmune disorder definition: heading term for a diverse group of disorders characterized by pathologenic immune reactions to autologous (self) tissue; for nonnpatholgical, developmental, or phenomenological aspects of autoimmunity, use AUTOIMMUNITY.
autoimmune disease definition: A condition in which the body recognizes its own tissues as foreign and directs an immune response against them.
Autoimmune Disease definition: A disorder resulting from loss of function or tissue destruction of an organ or multiple organs, arising from humoral or cellular immune responses of the individual to his own tissue constituents. It may be systemic (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus), or organ specific, (e.g., thyroiditis). -- 2003
Autoimmunity definition: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
autoimmunity definition: developmentally complex, not necessarily pathological, possibly pervasive, cell or humoral immune system reactivity toward autologous (self) antigens; do not confuse with AUTOIMMUNE DISORDER.
Autoimmune Status definition: Autoimmune Status; the state of a person's health in regard to autoimmune disease or antibody presence.
experimental allergic encephalomyelitis definition: autoimmune disease that can be induced in various experimental animals by the injection of homogenised brain or spinal cord in Freund's adjuvant.
Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental definition: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis definition: An autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that is produced experimentally in animals by the injection of homogenised brain or spinal cord in Freund's adjuvant. Myelin basic protein appears to be the antigen that elicits the hypersensitivity immune response which is characterized by focal areas of lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration into the brain, associated with demyelination and destruction of the blood-brain barrier. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is used as an animal model for demyelinating diseases of the human central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis. --2004
Graft vs Host Disease definition: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
graft versus host disease definition: caused by immunologically competent T cells in the graft recognizing and attacking host tissues as foreign; clinical symptoms include skin rashes, diarrhea, and abnormal liver functions.
graft-versus-host disease definition: A reaction of donated bone marrow or peripheral stem cells against a person's tissue.
Graft Versus Host Disease definition: An incompatibility reaction (which may be fatal) in a subject (host) of low immunological competence (deficient lymphoid tissue) who has been the recipient of immunologically competent lymphoid tissue from a donor who lacks at least one antigen possessed by the recipient host; the reaction, or disease, is the result of action of the transplanted cells against those host tissues that possess the antigen not possessed by the donor. Seen most commonly following bone marrow transplantation, acute disease is seen after 5-40 days and chronic disease weeks to months after transplantation, affecting, principally, the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and skin.
Graves' Disease definition: Hyperthyroidism associated with diffuse hyperplasia of the thyroid gland (goiter), resulting from production of antibodies that are directed against the thyrotropin receptor complex of the follicular epithelial cells. As a result, the thyroid gland enlarges and secrets increased amounts of thyroid hormones. --2004
Graves disease definition: exophthalmos occurring in association with goiter; hyperthyroidism with protrusion of the eyeballs.
Graves Disease definition: A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).
Guillain-Barre Syndrome definition: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)
Guillain Barre syndrome definition: progressive ascending motor neuron paralysis of unknown etiology, frequently following an enteric or respiratory infection.
Purpura, Schoenlein-Henoch definition: A systemic non-thrombocytopenic purpura caused by HYPERSENSITIVITY VASCULITIS and deposition of IGA-containing IMMUNE COMPLEXES within the blood vessels throughout the body, including those in the kidney (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS). Clinical symptoms include URTICARIA; ERYTHEMA; ARTHRITIS; GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE; and renal involvement. Most cases are seen in children after acute upper respiratory infections.
Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune definition: Autoimmune diseases affecting multiple endocrine organs. Type I is characterized by childhood onset and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS), while type II exhibits any combination of adrenal insufficiency (ADDISON'S DISEASE), lymphocytic thyroiditis (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE;), HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; and gonadal failure. In both types organ-specific ANTIBODIES against a variety of ENDOCRINE GLANDS have been detected. The type II syndrome differs from type I in that it is associated with HLA-A1 and B8 haplotypes, onset is usually in adulthood, and candidiasis is not present.
Hepatitis, Autoimmune definition: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
Autoimmune definition: Pertaining to autoimmunity.
Autoimmune Process definition: Developmentally complex, not necessarily pathological, and possibly pervasive, an Autoimmune Process is a specific humoral or cell-mediated immune response against autologous (self) antigens. An autoimmune process may produce or be caused by autoimmune disease.
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System definition: Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).
Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS definition: Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.
Myasthenia Gravis, Autoimmune, Experimental definition: Any autoimmune animal disease model used in the study of MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Injection with purified neuromuscular junction acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (see RECEPTORS, CHOLINERGIC) components results in a myasthenic syndrome that has acute and chronic phases. The motor endplate pathology, loss of acetylcholine receptors, presence of circulating anti-AChR antibodies, and electrophysiologic changes make this condition virtually identical to human myasthenia gravis. Passive transfer of AChR antibodies or lymphocytes from afflicted animals to normals induces passive transfer experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch 54, p3)
Thyroiditis, Autoimmune definition: Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.
autoimmune thyroiditis definition: diffuse infiltration of the thyroid gland with lymphocytes, resulting in diffuse goiter, progressive destruction of the parenchyma and hypothyroidism.
Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome definition: Rare congenital lymphoid disorder due to mutations in certain Fas-Fas ligand pathway genes. Known causes include mutations in FAS, TNFSF6, NRAS, CASP8, and CASP10 proteins. Clinical features include LYMPHADENOPATHY; SPLENOMEGALY; and AUTOIMMUNITY.