dict.md logo
Choose languages of interest
SELECT >>
English
German
Advertisement:
Definition
 
enEnglish
APUD Cells definition: Cells with the capacity to take up and decarboxylate the amine precursors DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE or 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN. This is a property of endocrine cells of neural and non-neural origin. APUDOMA is a general term collectively applied to tumors associated with APUD cells.
APUD Cell definition: Cells derived from primitive cell types in the neural crest. During ontogeny they migrate to the foregut and specific locations of the neuroendocrine system. Properly located these cells form part of the normal hormone producing tissues of the neuroendocrine system. If misdirected these cells may become hyperplastic, adenomatous, or malignant. (MeSH)
B lymphocyte definition: lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity; they are short lived cells resembling bursa derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
B-Lymphocytes definition: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
B lymphocytes definition: White blood cells that make antibodies and are an important part of the immune system. B lymphocytes come from bone marrow.
B-Lymphocyte definition: Immunologically important lymphocyte that is not thymus-dependent, is either short-lived and naive or long-lived and of memory phenotype, and resembles the bursa-derived lymphocyte of birds in that it is responsible for the production of immunoglobulins.
Blood Cells definition: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
blood cell definition: any of the cells contained in blood; includes erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets and hemocytes.
Blood cell definition: General anatomical term which refers to nucleated and non-nucleated differentiated hemal cells.
Peripheral Blood Cell definition: A general term describing the three cellular components of blood (white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets), all which are made in the bone marrow. (Lymphoma Information Network Glossary)
Cells definition: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
cell definition: minute protoplasmic masses that make up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus which is surrounded by protoplasm which contains the various organelles and is enclosed in the cell or plasma membrane; cells are the fundamental, structural, and functional units of living organisms.
cell definition: The individual unit that makes up all of the tissues of the body. All living things are made up of one or more cells.
cell definition: The basic structural and functional unit of all organisms. Includes the plasma membrane and any external encapsulating structures such as the cell wall and cell envelope. [GOC:go_curators]
Cell definition: Anatomical structure which has as its boundary the external surface of a maximally connected plasma membrane. Examples: lymphocyte, fibroblast, erythrocyte, neuron.
Cell definition: Anatomical structure that consists of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane, with or without the cell nucleus; together with other cells and intercellular matrix, it constitutes tissues. Examples: lymphocyte, fibroblast, erythrocyte, neuron.
Cell definition: The smallest units of living structure capable of independent existence, composed of a membrane-enclosed mass of protoplasm and containing a nucleus or nucleoid.
Cells, Cultured definition: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
chemoreceptor definition: sensory nerve endings capable of transducing chemical stimuli into neuronal impulses; do not confuse with receptor molecules, which are covered under RECEPTOR.
Chemoreceptor Cells definition: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Clone Cells definition: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
clone cell definition: group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes; clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence.
Dendritic Cells definition: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
dendritic cell definition: morphologic cell type; follicular d.c. found in germinal layers of spleen and lymph nodes and present antigen to B cells; cortical d.c. found in spleen white pulp and lymph node cortex and present antigen to T cells.
dendritic cell definition: A special type of antigen-presenting cell (APC) that activates T lymphocytes.
Dendritic Cell definition: Immunocompetent cells of the lymphoid and hemopoietic systems and skin. They function morphologically and phenotypically by presenting or processing antigens, thereby stimulating cellular immunity. They represent the most potent antigen-presenting cells and, therefore, play a critical role in the primary T cell immune response.
Enterochromaffin Cells definition: A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
Enterochromaffin Cell definition: A group of basal granular cells of the gut whose granules stain readily with silver and chromium salts. The cells secrete serotonin, substance P, and enkephalins. (MeSH)
Argentaffin Cell definition: An enteroendocrine cell located in the basilar portions of the glands of the gastrointestinal tract. The granules in the cell stain readily with chromium and silver salts without pretreatment with a reducing agent.
Epithelial Cells definition: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) from mesoderm.
Epithelial cell definition: Somatic cell which has as its part a cytoskeleton that allows for tight cell to cell contact and for cell polarity where apical part is directed towards the lumen and the basal part to the basal lamina. It may either contain keratin, vimentin or vimentin-like intermediate filaments.
Epithelial Cell definition: Cells that cover the surface of the body and line its cavities.
Epithelioid Cells definition: Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).
Epithelioid Cell definition: Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells. (MeSH)
Eukaryotic Cells definition: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
eukaryote definition: organism whose cells have a true nucleus, i.e., one bounded by a nuclear membrane, within which lie the chromosomes, combined with proteins and exhibiting mitosis; also contain many membrane-bound compartments (organelles) in which cellular functions are performed; cells of higher plants and animals, fungi, protozoa, and most algae are eukaryotic.
Eukaryotic Cell definition: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane. (MeSH)
Foam Cells definition: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
Foam Cell definition: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells. (MeSH)
Germ Cells definition: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
germ cell definition: reproductive cells in multicellular organisms.
reproductive cells definition: A reproductive cell of the body. Germ cells are egg cells in females and sperm cells in males.
Haploid nucleated cell definition: Nucleated cell which has a haploid set (23 pairs) of chromosomes.Haploid nucleated cell
Germ cell definition: Nucleated cell which has or pre-determined to have a haploid set (23 pairs) of chromosomes.
Germ Cell definition: Gametes, also known as sex cells or germ cells, are the cells that come together during fertilization or conception in organisms that reproduce sexually. Their genetic complement consists of a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
Giant Cells definition: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
syncytium definition: A large cell-like structure formed by the joining together of two or more cells. The plural is syncytia.
Granulosa Cells definition: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
granulosa cell definition: cells surrounding the vesicular ovarian follicle and forming the stratum granulosum and cumulus oophorus; after ovulation, they are transformed to lutein cells.
Ovarian Granulosa Cell definition: A cuboidal cell derived from a spindle-shaped granulosa cell precursor. Initially, ovarian granulosa cells create a single layer surrounding an oocyte. The oocyte and its single layer of ovarian granulosa cells make up a primary follicle. Proliferation of the ovarian granulosa cells leads to multiple cell layers surrounding the oocyte and maturation into a secondary follicle. The granulosa cells extend cytoplasmic processes to form gestational gap-junction-like unions with the plasma membrane of the oocyte. The continued growth of the ovarian granulosa cells takes the oocyte to the Graafian follicle stage. Once ovulation occurs, the granulosa cells become part of the corpus luteum. A major function of an ovarian granulosa cell is hormone production and secretion.
Ovarian Granulosa Cell definition: Cells of the membrana granulosa lining the vesicular ovarian follicle which become luteal cells after ovulation. (MeSH)
Hela Cells definition: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks (one of several pseudonyms). These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
HeLa cell definition: first continuously cultured human malignant cell line, derived from a cervical carcinoma; used for virus cultivation and antitumor drug screening assays.
HeLa definition: HeLa cells were developed from cervix adenocarcinoma of a 31-year-old Black female. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. HeLa cells have been reported to contain human papilloma virus 18 (HPV-18) sequences. P53 expression was reported to be low, and normal levels of pRB (retinoblastoma suppressor) were found. Four typical HeLa marker chromosomes have been reported. M1 is a rearranged long arm and centromere of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 3. M2 is a combination of short arm of chromosome 3 and long arm of chromosome 5. M3 is an isochromosome of the short arm of chromosome 5. M4 consists of the long arm of chromosome 11 and an arm of chromosome 19. HeLa Marker Chromosomes: One copy of Ml, one copy of M2, four-five copies of M3, and two copies of M4 as revealed by G-banding patterns.
Neuroglia definition: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
glia definition: non-neuronal cells of the nervous system; they provide physical support, respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons.
glial cell definition: (GLEE-al) A type of cell that surrounds nerve cells and holds them in place. Glial cells also insulate nerve cells from each other.
Glial Cell definition: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the blood-brain and blood-retina barriers, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear. (MeSH)
CHO Cells definition: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
CHO cell definition: cell line established from Chinese hamster ovary cells; used for the isolation of nutritionally deficient mutants and in transfection studies.
CHO Cells definition: The parental CHO cell line initiated from a biopsy of an ovary of an adult Chinese hamster.
3T3 Cells definition: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
3T3 cell definition: a ubiquitous tissue culture model for nontransformed animal cells; derived from nonneoplastic immortalized fibroblasts.
Adipocytes definition: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
adipocyte definition: fat-storing cells found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue.
Adipocyte definition: Fat-storing cells found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. (MeSH)
Lipocyte definition: A fat storing cell.
endothelial cell definition: The main type of cell found in the inside lining of blood vessels, lymph vessels, and the heart.
Endothelial Cells definition: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Endothelial Cell definition: The main type of cell forming the lining of blood and lymph vessels and the inner layer of the endocardium. SYN endotheliocyte.
hepatocyte definition: (HEP-a-toe-site) A liver cell.
liver cell definition: cells of the liver including hepatocytes, the polyhedral epithelial cells that constitute the substance of an acinus of the liver.
Hepatocytes definition: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Hepatocyte definition: A parenchymal liver cell.
amacrine cell definition: interneurons of the vertebrate retina which integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the retinal ganglion cells, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
Amacrine Cells definition: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
Amacrine Cell definition: A retinal neuron that lacks large axons, having only processes that resemble dendrites.
Endocrine Cells definition: Secretory cells of the ductless glands. They secrete HORMONES directly into the blood circulation (internal secretion) to be carried to the target cells. The secreted chemicals can be PEPTIDES; STEROIDS; NEUROPEPTIDES; or BIOGENIC AMINES.
Cells, Immobilized definition: Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
HL-60 Cells definition: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Caco-2 Cells definition: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
HT29 Cells definition: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
Cells per Liter definition: A unit of cell concentration expressed as a number of cells per unit volume equal to one liter.
blasts definition: Immature blood cells.
Blast Cell definition: Blast cells are in an immature (undifferentiated) stage in cellular development, occurring before the appearance of the definitive characteristics exhibited by fully differentiated cells.
chromaffin cell definition: located in the medulla of adrenal gland and paraganglia; can discharge epinephrine into bloodstream upon stimulation and through this the sympathetic nervous system can mediate hormonal-type actions on various organs throughout the body.
Chromaffin Cells definition: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
Chromaffin Cell definition: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. (MeSH)
COS Cells definition: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
COS-1 definition: The line was derived from the CV-1 cell line (ATCC CCL-70) by transformation with an origin defective mutant of SV40 which codes for wild type T antigen. The cells contain a single integrated copy of the complete early region of the SV40 genome.
Cells per Microliter definition: A unit of cell concentration expressed as a number of cells per unit volume equal to one microliter.
goblet cell definition: vase shaped epithelial cell that secretes mucous; present in the gastrointestinal system, respiratory airways, corneal epithelium, and possibly other tissues.
Goblet Cells definition: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Goblet Cell definition: Cells of the epithelial lining that produce and secrete mucins. (MeSH)
basal cells definition: (BAY-sal) Small, round cells found in the lower part (or base) of the epidermis, the outer layer of the skin.
basal cell definition: cell in lowest layer of a stratified tissue, e.g., epithelium; site of tissue renewal.
Thyroid Gland Oxyphil Cell definition: A large, granular eosinophilic cell derived from thyroid follicular epithelium by accumulation of mitochondria
Hurthle Cells definition: Oxyphil cells in the thyroid gland are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells.
BALB 3T3 Cells definition: Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).
3T3-L1 Cells definition: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
Erythroid Cells definition: The series of cells in the red blood cell lineage at various stages of differentiation.
somatic cells definition: All the body cells except the reproductive (germ) cells.
Somatic cell definition: Nucleated cell which has a diploid set (46 pairs) of chromosomes.
Somatic cell definition: Nucleated cell which has a diploid set (46 pairs) of chromosomes.
HCT116 Cells definition: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.
Billion Cells definition: A unit of cell count expressed in billions.
Cumulus Cells definition: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.
Bite Cell Count definition: The determination of the number of bite cells present in a sample.
Bite Cells definition: A measurement of the bite cells (erthrocytes with the appearance of a bite having been removed, due to oxidative hemolysis) in a biological specimen .
Burr Cell Count definition: The determination of the number of Burr cells present in a sample.
Burr Cells definition: A measurement of the Burr cells (erythrocytes characterized by the presence of small, blunt projections evenly distributed across the cell surface) in a biological specimen.
Smudge Cell Count definition: The determination of the number of smudge cells present in a sample.
Smudge Cells definition: A measurement of the smudge cells (the nuclear remnant of a ruptured white blood cell) in a biological specimen.
Hep G2 Cells definition: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.