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Definition
 
enEnglish
autophagy definition: segregation of part of the cell's own cytoplasmic material within a membrane and its digestion after fusion of the segregated vacuole with a lysosome.
autophagy definition: The process by which cells digest parts of their own cytoplasm; allows for both recycling of macromolecular constituents under conditions of cellular stress and remodeling the intracellular structure for cell differentiation. [ISBN:0198547684, PMID:11099404, PMID:9412464]
Autophagy definition: Autophagy is a biological process that involves the lysosomal degradation of intracellular components using it a cell's own machinery. This process can play a role in cellular defense, embryonic development, and cell growth.
Autophagy definition: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
Cell Adhesion definition: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
cell adhesion definition: adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
cellular adhesion definition: The close adherence (bonding) to adjoining cell surfaces.
cell adhesion definition: The attachment of a cell, either to another cell or to an underlying substrate such as the extracellular matrix, via cell adhesion molecules. [GOC:hb, GOC:pf]
Cell Adhesion definition: Cell Adhesion involves close adherence (bonding) of a cell to another cell surface or to insoluble material due to physiochemical attraction between molecules on the surfaces of the adjoining bodies in contact.
Cell Aging definition: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
cell senescence definition: final stage of cellular differentiation, characterized by inability to grow, divide, or repair damaged cell components, leading to cell death.
cell aging definition: Progression of the cell from its inception to the end of its lifespan. [GOC:jh, PMID:12044934]
Cell Aging definition: Progression of the cell from its inception to the end of its lifespan. (Gene Ontology)
cell growth definition: The process by which a cell irreversibly increases in size over time by accretion and biosynthetic production of matter similar to that already present. [GOC:ai]
Cell Growth definition: The complex series of phenomena occurring after cell division and before cell death.
Cell Hypoxia definition: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
Cell Membrane definition: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
cell membrane definition: lipid and protein containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; in most types of microbial cells it is bordered externally by the cell wall.
plasma membrane definition: The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell from its external environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins. [ISBN:0716731363]
cytoplasmic membrane definition: OBSOLETE. In Gram-negative bacteria the membrane that separates the cytoplasm from the murein sacculus. [GOC:ma]
Plasma membrane definition: Cell component which has as its parts a maximal phospholipids bilayer and two or more types of protein embedded in the bilayer. Examples: plasma membrane of hepatocyte, sarcolemma, plasma membrane of erythrocyte.
Plasma membrane definition: Cell part that surrounds the cytoplasm.
Plasma Membrane definition: The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell.
Cellular Membrane definition: Any of the lipid bilayer membranes within a cell.
Cell Physiological Phenomena definition: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
Cell Physiology definition: Characteristics and physiological processes of cells from cell division to cell death.
Cellular Process definition: A coordinated, single-cell function or a process involving or requiring whole cells or involving a major or a substantial portion of a cell or of the total machinery of a cell. (NCI)
Subcellular Process definition: An intracellular or extracellular function, activity, or process principally involving intracellular or extracellular components. (NCI)
Cells definition: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
cell definition: minute protoplasmic masses that make up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus which is surrounded by protoplasm which contains the various organelles and is enclosed in the cell or plasma membrane; cells are the fundamental, structural, and functional units of living organisms.
cell definition: The individual unit that makes up all of the tissues of the body. All living things are made up of one or more cells.
cell definition: The basic structural and functional unit of all organisms. Includes the plasma membrane and any external encapsulating structures such as the cell wall and cell envelope. [GOC:go_curators]
Cell definition: Anatomical structure which has as its boundary the external surface of a maximally connected plasma membrane. Examples: lymphocyte, fibroblast, erythrocyte, neuron.
Cell definition: Anatomical structure that consists of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane, with or without the cell nucleus; together with other cells and intercellular matrix, it constitutes tissues. Examples: lymphocyte, fibroblast, erythrocyte, neuron.
Cell definition: The smallest units of living structure capable of independent existence, composed of a membrane-enclosed mass of protoplasm and containing a nucleus or nucleoid.
Inclusion Bodies definition: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or Mallory bodies), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
inclusion body definition: generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (for example, lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (for example, ceroid or Mallory bodies), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell; inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells.
inclusion body definition: A discrete intracellular part formed of aggregated molecules such as proteins or other biopolymers. [GOC:mah, PMID:11121744]
cell biology definition: for thorough searching also see CYTOLOGY.
Cell Biology definition: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
Cytology definition: The light microscopic study of normal and abnormal cells in fine needle aspirates (FNAs), body cavity fluids, and smears. -- 2004
Cell Biology definition: The study of the internal workings of cells at the microscopic and molecular level.
cytology definition: Used for cellular appearance of unicellular and multicellular organisms.
Cytoskeleton definition: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
cytoskeleton definition: network of protein filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm that controls cell shape, maintains intracellular organization, and is involved in cell movement.
cytoskeleton definition: Any of the various filamentous elements that form the internal framework of cells, and typically remain after treatment of the cells with mild detergent to remove membrane constituents and soluble components of the cytoplasm. The term embraces intermediate filaments, microfilaments, microtubules, the microtrabecular lattice, and other structures characterized by a polymeric filamentous nature and long-range order within the cell. The various elements of the cytoskeleton not only serve in the maintenance of cellular shape but also have roles in other cellular functions, including cellular movement, cell division, endocytosis, and movement of organelles. [GOC:mah, ISBN:0198547684, PMID:16959967]
Cytoskeleton definition: The protein scaffolding (the network of filaments microfilaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments, and their associated proteins) that gives shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm and a cell its shape.
Immunity, Cellular definition: Those manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
cellular immunity definition: immunity mediated by T-lymphocytes through either release of lymphokines or exertion of direct cytotoxicity; responsible for reactions such as allograft rejection and delayed hypersensitivity.
Cell-Mediated Immunity definition: Those manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Necrosis definition: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. Distinguish it from APOPTOSIS which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
necrosis definition: sum of the morphological changes indicative of cell death and caused by the progressive degradation action of enzymes; may affect groups of cells or part of a structure or an organ.
necrosis definition: (ne-KRO-sis) Refers to the death of living tissues.
necrosis definition: OBSOLETE. The processes that cause necrosis, the death of tissues, in another organism. [GOC:ma]
necrotic cell death definition: A cell death process that is morphologically characterized by a gain in cell volume (oncosis), swelling of organelles, plasma membrane rupture and subsequent loss of intracellular contents. [PMID:18846107]
Necrosis definition: The pathologic localized death of living cells, as from infection or interruption of the blood supply, generally associated with severe cellular trauma caused by progressive degradation by enzymes. Characterized by mitochondrial swelling, nuclear flocculation, and uncontrolled cell lysis, it is unprogrammed death of living tissue and cells.
Necrotic definition: Relating to or affected by necrosis.
Proto-Oncogenes definition: Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
protooncogene definition: normal, nonpathogenic genes which, when mutated or otherwise altered, become oncogenes; many code for growth factors, growth factor receptors, genetic regulatory proteins, or other signal transduction molecules; compare with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENE and ONCOGENE.
Proto-Oncogene definition: Oncogenes are altered forms of normal cellular genes called proto-oncogene. Many proto-oncogenes are homologous to viral oncogenes and involved in the control of cell proliferation or differentiation. Mutations, amplifications or rearrangements of proto-oncogenes lead to upregulated or deregulated cell growth and allow them to function as oncogenes.
Cell Polarity definition: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
cellular polarity definition: characteristic cellular asymmetry at the morphologic or functional level, especially involving the cell membrane; e.g., animal-vegetal polarity in ova, axons and dendrites in neurons, unidirectional absorption by polarized epithelia; do not confuse with MEMBRANE POTENTIAL.
Cell Respiration definition: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
aerobic respiration definition: The enzymatic release of energy from organic compounds (especially carbohydrates and fats) which requires oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. [GOC:jl, ISBN:0140513590]
cellular respiration definition: The enzymatic release of energy from organic compounds (especially carbohydrates and fats) which either requires oxygen (aerobic respiration) or does not (anaerobic respiration). [ISBN:0140513590, ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
cellular respiration definition: metabolic process of all living cells; respiration is an oxidation-reduction reaction involving an oxidant (electron acceptor) and a reductant (electron donor); aerobes use oxygen as the electron acceptor.
Cell Respiration definition: A chemical process in which oxygen is used to make energy from carbohydrates (sugars).
Cell Respiration definition: A two-stage process in which molecules are oxidized to produce carbon dioxide and water. In the first stage, glucose is converted to pyruvic acid via the glycolytic pathway. Subsequently, pyruvic acid is metabolized to ultimately yield carbon dioxide and water.
cell mediated cytotoxicity definition: phenomenon of antibody mediated target cell destruction by nonsensitized effector cells; effector cell is a killer cell possessing Fc receptors; it may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B or T cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell.
Cell-Mediated Cytolysis definition: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IgG whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
Cellular Leiomyoma definition: A morphologic variant of classic leiomyoma characterized by a dense cellular infiltrate composed of spindle or round cells with scant cytoplasm and a less obvious interlacing fascicle pattern.
Juvenile Fibroadenoma definition: A fibroadenoma characterized by epithelial hyperplasia and an increased stromal cellularity.
Cellular Schwannoma definition: Cellular Schwannoma (also called Cellular Neurilemmoma or Cellular Neurinoma) is a hypercellular Schwannoma composed exclusively or predominantly of Antoni A tissue, and devoid of Verocay bodies. Cellular Schwannomas are benign, although recurrences can occur, especially when located in the spine. (Adapted from WHO.)
regulation of cell growth definition: Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell growth. [GOC:go_curators]
Cell Growth Regulation definition: Cell growth regulation controls the rate, or the mechanism, of complex coordinated cellular phenomena that promote cell metabolism, cell growth, and cell division.
cell proliferation definition: The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population. [GOC:mah, GOC:mb]
cell proliferation definition: reproduction or multiplication of cells.
Cell Proliferation definition: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Cell Proliferation definition: An increase in the number of cells as a result of cell growth and cell division.
Cell Proliferation definition: Cell proliferation involves the growth and reproduction of similar cells by cell division, resulting in an increase in cell number. (NCI)
cellular oncology definition: study of cell morphology, structure, physiology, etc as it passes into a cancerous state or through the stages of cancer.
Cellular Oncology definition: The study of the cellular changes associated with the development of neoplastic conditions.
cellular pathology definition: study of cell morphology, structure, physiology, etc as it passes into a pathologic state or through the pathologic process.
Cellular Telephone definition: A hand-held mobile radiotelephone for use in an area divided into small sections (cells), each with its own short-range transmitter/receiver
Cellular Phone definition: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
Mechanotransduction, Cellular definition: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
cellular extravasation definition: The migration of leukocytes from the blood vessels into the surrounding tissue. [GOC:jl]
cell morphogenesis definition: The developmental process by which the size or shape of a cell is generated and organized. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form. [GOC:clt, GOC:dph, GOC:go_curators, GOC:tb]
cellular_component definition: The part of a cell or its extracellular environment in which a gene product is located. A gene product may be located in one or more parts of a cell and its location may be as specific as a particular macromolecular complex, that is, a stable, persistent association of macromolecules that function together. [GOC:go_curators]
Biota definition: The spectrum of different living organisms in an ecosystem.
Cellular Fibroma definition: A morphologic variant of fibroma characterized by increased cellularity.
cellular process definition: Any process that is carried out at the cellular level, but not necessarily restricted to a single cell. For example, cell communication occurs among more than one cell, but occurs at the cellular level. [GOC:go_curators, GOC:isa_complete]
Cellular Angiofibroma definition: A morphologic variant of angiofibroma characterized by the presence of increased cellularity.
Clear Cell Ependymoma definition: An ependymoma, often supratentorial in location, characterized by the presence of ependymal cells with a perinuclear halo.
Cellular Ependymoma definition: Cellular Ependymoma is a variant of Ependymoma which shows conspicuous cellularity without a significant increase in mitotic rate. (Adapted from WHO)
differentiation definition: In cancer, refers to how mature (developed) the cancer cells are in a tumor. Differentiated tumor cells resemble normal cells and tend to grow and spread at a slower rate than undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumor cells, which lack the structure and function of normal cells and grow uncontrollably.
Cell Mobility definition: Cell Mobility consists of passive translocation of the whole cell, or cell body, from one site to another.
Cellular Assay definition: In vitro experiments conducted with intact, living cells.
Cellular Immunology definition: The cells in the body and how they are involved in immunity
Cellular Immunology definition: The study of those manifestations of the immune system which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes.
Cellular Infiltration definition: Normal or pathologic migration and accumulation of cells within tissues.
cell morphology definition: the physical dimensions of a cell; may refer to changes in dimensions correlated with physiological or pathological changes in cells.
cellular metabolic process definition: The chemical reactions and pathways by which individual cells transform chemical substances. [GOC:go_curators]
cellular catabolic process definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of substances, carried out by individual cells. [GOC:jl]
cellular biosynthetic process definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of substances, carried out by individual cells. [GOC:jl]
Enucleation definition: A surgical procedure by which tissue or an organ (usually containing a tumor) is removed without rupture from a specific anatomic site.
enucleation definition: The process by which nucleated precursor cells lose their nucleus during erythrocyte maturation. [GOC:hgd]
cell migration definition: movement of cells from one location to another; for cytokinesis, the process of the cytoplasm of a cell dividing following nuclear division, use CELL CYCLE.
cell migration definition: The orderly movement of cells from one site to another, often during the development of a multicellular organism or multicellular structure. [GOC:ems, GOC:pf]
Cell Migration definition: Cell Migration consists of active directed translocation of a whole cell, or cell body, from one site to another in response to a gradient; distinct from cell motion that involves movement of cell processes (e.g., axons, microvilli, etc.). (NCI)
intracellular pH reduction definition: Any process that reduces the internal pH of a cell, measured by the concentration of the hydrogen ion. [GOC:ai]
intracellular pH elevation definition: Any process that increases the internal pH of a cell, measured by the concentration of the hydrogen ion. [GOC:ai]
cellular localization definition: Any process by which a substance or cellular entity, such as a protein complex or organelle, is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location within or in the membrane of a cell. [GOC:ai]
Cell Microenvironment definition: The complex relationships between tumor cells and the neighboring cells in the host environment. Cellular signaling within the microenvironment can promote the continuing survival and growth of tumor cells, or apoptosis (cell death). Research is currently underway to manipulate this relationship by altering the host environment in ways that silence or inhibit pro-survival signals concurrent with standard therapies.
Cellular Myxoma definition: A myxoma with increased cellularity.
cellular homeostasis definition: Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium at the level of the cell. [GOC:isa_complete, GOC:jl, ISBN:0395825172]
cellular pigmentation definition: The deposition or aggregation of coloring matter in a cell. [GOC:mtg_MIT_16mar07]
cellular bud definition: A protuberance from a cell of an organism that reproduces by budding, which will grow larger and become a separate daughter cell after nuclear division, cytokinesis, and cell wall formation (when appropriate). The daughter cell may completely separate from the mother cell, or the mother and daughter cells may remain associated. [GOC:sgd_curators]
Cellular Cast Measurement definition: The determination of the amount of cellular casts present in a urine sample.
Cellular Casts definition: A measurement of the cellular (white blood cell, red blood cell, epithelial and bacterial) casts present in a urine specimen.
Cellular Morphology definition: Cellular morphology is the form and structure of cells, and its relation to cell function, or the scientific study thereof.
cellular definition: Téléphone portable.
 
 
deGerman
Handy definition: [1] Mobiltelefon
Natel definition: [1] Abkürzung für 'N'ationales 'A'uto'tel'efon (gängige schweizerische Bezeichnung für „Handy“)
Schaumstoff definition: [1] Ein Schaumstoff ist ein Kunststoff, dessen Struktur durch viele Zellen (von Grundmaterial eingeschlossene Hohlräume, Poren) gebildet wird.
Mobiltelefon definition: [1] kabelloses Telefon, das über ein Funknetz funktioniert
 
frFrench
cellulaire definition: ''(Québec)'' Téléphone portable.