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Chemical Burn definition: A burn caused by exposure to chemical substances.
Carcinogens definition: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
carcinogen definition: substances that increase the risk of neoplasms; includes genotoxic agents, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic agents, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism.
carcinogen definition: (kar-SIN-o-jin) Any substance that causes cancer.
chemical carcinogen definition: any chemical that increases the risk of neoplasms; includes genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanisms.
Carcinogen definition: Any chemical, biological or physical agents that increase the risk of neoplasms in humans or animals. Carcinogens include natural or synthesized compounds, certain viruses, and various sources of radiation. A carcinogen may directly alter the genetic material of cells (genotoxic), thereby initiating or promoting the process of malignant transformation; it also may induce cancers by mechanisms that do not involve a direct alteration of cellular genetic material (non-genotoxic). (NCI04)
Chemical Carcinogen definition: A chemical compound that is capable of causing cancer in animals and/or in humans after repeated and long duration of exposure.
Chemical Engineering definition: Chemical Engineering; engineering dealing with the industrial application of chemistry. (WWWebster Dictionary)
Chemical Industry definition: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Defoliants, Chemical definition: Herbicides that remove leaves from trees and growing plants. They may be either organic or inorganic. Several of the more persistent types have been used in military operations and many are toxic. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Depression, Chemical definition: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Elements definition: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
element definition: fundamental chemical units of which all matter at or above the atomic level is composed; each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons; such varieties of an element are isotopes.
Element definition: A substance whose atoms all have the same atomic number, that cannot be divided into simpler substances, and that singly or in combination constitute all matter.
fractionation definition: Dividing the total dose of radiation therapy into several smaller, equal doses delivered over a period of several days.
Chemical Fractionation definition: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemical Fractionation definition: Methods of fractionation, isolation, and purification based on the physico-chemical properties of the substance, e.g. crystallization, distillation, solubility (miscibility).
Hypophysectomy, Chemical definition: Total or subtotal destruction of the pituitary gland by chemical injection. It is usually achieved by injection of ethyl alcohol via trans-sphenoidal cannulation under stereotaxic control. It is usually performed for the treatment of intractable pain.
chemistry definition: Used with chemicals, biological, and non-biological substances for their composition, structure, characterization, and properties; also used for the chemical composition or content of organs, tissue, tumors, body fluids, organisms, and plants. Excludes chemical analysis and determination of substances for which "analysis" is used; excludes synthesis for which "chemical synthesis" is used; excludes isolation and purification of substances for which "isolation & purification" is used.
chemical binding definition: a strong physiochemical attraction between molecules.
cofactor definition: any nonprotein substance required by a protein for biological activity, such as prosthetic groups of coenzymes, which are not consumed in the process and are found unchanged at the end of the reaction.
Cofactor definition: Something that must join with another to produce a given result.
chemical definition: tree section heading for terms covering drugs, reagents, biomolecules, and other chemical compounds.
Chemical definition: A substance with a defined atomic or molecular structure that results from, or takes part in, reactions involving changes in its structure, composition, or properties.
chemical substance definition: A substance that is fully defined by an organic or inorganic chemical formula, includes mixtures of other chemical substances. Refine using, e.g., IUPAC codes.
Evolution, Chemical definition: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
chemical addition definition: a reaction in which two molecules combine to yield a single molecule of product.
chemical aggregate definition: tendency of large molecules or colloid particles to combine in clumps.
chemical association definition: a reversible chemical combination due to any of the weaker classes of chemical bonding forces.
Chemical Association definition: Any process of combining chemical entities that is dependent upon chemical forces.
chemical cleavage definition: division into two separate compounds.
Chemical Cleavage definition: The breaking of a chemical bond in a molecule resulting in smaller molecules.
chemical condensation definition: a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to form a larger molecule by eliminating a small molecule, such as H2O.
chemical conjugate definition: joining of two compounds to produce another, such as the combination of a toxic product with an endogenous substance to form a detoxified product.
chemical fingerprinting definition: technique for determining protein structure in which the protein is split into peptides and the fragments are separated in one direction by electrophoresis and at right angles by chromatography.
chemical group definition: a combination of two or more closely associated elements which tend to remain together in reactions, behaving chemically as if they were individual entities.
chemical hydration definition: incorporation of a water molecule into a compound, yielding a hydrate; use this term also for chemical dehydration, eliminating a water molecule from a compound.
chemical carcinogenesis definition: process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells by means of a chemical.
Chemical Carcinogenesis definition: The study of the processes by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells by chemicals.
chemical kinetics definition: branch of physical chemistry concerned with rate dynamics and mechanisms in chemical systems.
Chemical Kinetics definition: The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.
Small Molecule Libraries definition: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
Accidents, Chemical definition: Non-deliberate uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment.
Substance Abuse definition: Excessive use of harmful bodily materials.
Substance Abuse definition: Maladaptive pattern of drug or alcohol use that may lead to social, occupational, psychological, or physical problems.
chemical bond definition: chemical forces that exist between particles.
chemical hypersensitivity definition: state of altered reactivity in which the body reacts with an exaggerated or inappropriate immune response to a foreign chemical or chemical compound.
chemical genetics definition: research method that uses small molecules to change the way proteins work directly in real time rather than indirectly by manipulating their genes; used to identify which proteins regulate different biological processes, to understand in molecular detail how proteins perform their biological functions, and to identify small molecules that may be of medical value; the term chemical genetics indicates that the approach uses chemistry to generate the small molecules and that it is based on principles that are similar to classical genetic screens.
cheminformatics definition: informatics technologies that integrate chemical data with analytic and molecular design tools; cheminformatics applications provide access to compound related information, including chemical structure, properties, structure activity relationships, etc.
drug addiction definition: state of heavy dependence on any drug, including alcohol; sometimes defined as physical dependence but usually also including emotional dependence, i.e., compulsive or pathological drug use.
Drug Dependence definition: Drug dependence - replaced the term "drug addiction" and is defined as a state, psychic and sometimes also physical, resulting from the interaction between a living organism and a drug, characterized by behavioral and other responses that always include a compulsion to take the drug on a continuous or periodic basis in order to experience its psychic effects, and sometimes to avoid the discomfort of its absence. Tolerance may or may not be present. A person may be dependent on more than one drug.
Chemical Agents definition: The consideration of chemical factors as a variable in disease incident, transmission, and control.
Chemical Immunotherapy definition: The use of chemicals to enhance the immune system in treatment of cancer
Chemical Interference definition: A type of footprinting technique used to define the location of protein-nucleic acid contacts at the base pair level in nucleic acids. It utilizes nucleic acids treated with a chemical in such a way that only a fraction of the nucleotides are chemically modified. The chemically modified nucleotides that interfere with protein-nucleic acid complex formation can be identified by fragmentation and electrophoretic analysis of the DNA isolated from the complexes.
Chemical Formula definition: A representation of a substance using symbols for its constituent elements.
chemical homeostasis definition: Any biological process involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium of a chemical. [GOC:isa_complete]
Chemical issue definition: Issue associated with any deviations from device documented performance specifications relating to any chemical characterization, i.e., element, compound, or mixture.
Chemical_Formula definition: Concise expression about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound.
Chemical Phenomena definition: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Chemical Hazard Release definition: Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
chemical definition: [1] Chemikalie, chemisches Präparat
periodic table definition: [1] Chemie: nach Gruppen und Perioden geordnete, systematische Tabelle der chemischen Elemente
chemical definition: Produit chimique.
chemical definition: Industrie chimique.
chemisch definition: [1] die Chemie betreffend, sich auf die Chemie beziehend
Chemikalie definition: [1] industriell hergestellter chemischer Stoff
Kinetik definition: [1] Physik: Die Lehre von der Bewegung durch Kräfte; sie beschreibt die Änderung von Weg, Geschwindigkeit und Beschleunigung [2] Chemie: Die Lehre von dem zeitlichen Ablauf chemischer Reaktionen (Reaktionskinetik) oder physikalisch-chemischer Vorgänge (z.B. Diffusion, Stoffabscheidung an Oberflächen)
chemisches Element definition: Chemie:Sammelbezeichnung für alle Atomarten mit derselben Anzahl an Protonen in Atomkern
chemische Verbindung definition: [1] Chemie: ein chemischer Stoff mit eindeutiger chemischer Struktur, der aus zwei oder mehreren verschiedenen chemischen Elementen besteht, welche in einem festen Atomverhältnis und daher auch Massenverhältnis zueinander stehen
sostanza chimica definition: [1] Chemikalie; chemische Substanz
composto chimico definition: [1] die chemische Verbindung
elementu kimiko definition: [1] Chemie: alle chemischen Stoffe, die ausschließlich aus Atomen mit gleicher Anzahl an Protonen im Atomkern bestehen.