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Definition
 
enEnglish
ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase definition: An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.
Cleavage Stage, Ovum definition: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
embryogenic cleavage definition: the first stage of embryogenesis; cleavage of fertilized ovum, leading to formation of the embryo.
gamma-Glutamyl Hydrolase definition: Catalyzes the hydrolysis of pteroylpolyglutamic acids in gamma linkage to pterolylmonoglutamic acid and free glutamic acid. EC 3.4.19.9.
mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors definition: Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.
Cleavage Stimulation Factor definition: A RNA-binding protein that stimulates the cleavage of the 3' end of MRNA near the POLYADENYLATION site. It is a heterotrimer of 55-, 64- and 77-kDa subunits and combines with CLEAVAGE STIMULATION FACTOR to form a stable complex with mRNA that directs the 3' cleavage and polyadenylation reaction.
Cleavage And Polyadenylation Specificity Factor definition: An RNA-binding protein that recognizes the AAUAAA RNA SEQUENCE at the 3' end of MRNA. It contains four subunits of 30, 73, 100 and 160 kDa molecular size and combines with CLEAVAGE STIMULATION FACTOR to form a stable complex with mRNA that directs the 3' cleavage and polyadenylation reaction.
chemical cleavage definition: division into two separate compounds.
Chemical Cleavage definition: The breaking of a chemical bond in a molecule resulting in smaller molecules.
proteolysis definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein by the destruction of the native, active configuration, with the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. [GOC:jsg, GOC:mah]
proteolysis definition: splitting of proteins by hydrolysis of the peptide bonds with formation of smaller polypeptides; the process may be catalyzed by proteolytic enzymes, by acids, or by bases.
Protein Cleavage definition: Protein Cleavage involves hydrolysis by proteolytic enzymes of specific peptide bond(s), forming smaller polypeptides in the target protein during maturation or modification of functional activity.
Proteolysis definition: Proteolysis typically involves hydrolysis of specific peptide bond(s) with formation of smaller polypeptides in a target protein during maturation or modification of functional activity. The process may be catalyzed by proteolytic enzymes, by acids, or by bases.
embryonic cleavage definition: The first few specialized divisions of an activated animal egg. [GOC:clt, ISBN:0070524300]
CstF definition: OBSOLETE. A factor is necessary for cleavage but not for poly(A) addition in mRNA 3' end processing; can stimulate poly(A) addition on substrates with a CstF binding site upstream of the AAUAAA hexanucleotide. [PMID:10357856]
catechol catabolic process, meta-cleavage definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of catechol via the meta-cleavage pathway, in which the catechol aromatic ring is broken between a hydroxylated carbon atom and an adjacent unsubstituted carbon atom. [GOC:jl, http://www.ence.umd.edu/]
catechol catabolic process, ortho-cleavage definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of catechol via the ortho-cleavage pathway, in which the catechol aromatic ring is broken between the two carbon atoms bearing hydroxyl groups. [GOC:jl, http://www.ence.umd.edu/]
mRNA cleavage definition: Any process by which a pre-mRNA or mRNA molecule is cleaved at specific sites or in a regulated manner. [GOC:mah]
cleavage of lamin definition: The proteolytic degradation of lamins during apoptosis, leading to the irreversible breakdown of the nuclear lamina. [GOC:mah, ISBN:0815332181]
mRNA cleavage factor complex definition: Any macromolecular complex involved in cleavage or polyadenylation of mRNA molecules. [GOC:mah, PMID:10357856]
glycine cleavage complex definition: A protein complex that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of glycine. In E. coli, it has four components: dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, glycine dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), lipoyl-GcvH-protein and aminomethyltransferase, also known as L, P, H, and T. [GOC:mah, MetaCyc:GCVMULTI-CPLX]
glycine synthase definition: OBSOLETE. Catalysis of the reactions glycine + lipoylprotein = S-aminomethyldihydrolipoylprotein + carbon dioxide (CO2), followed by S-aminomethyldihydrolipoylprotein + (6S)-tetrahydrofolate = dihydrolipoylprotein + (6R)-5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate + ammonia. Made up of two components, aminomethyltransferase and glycine dehydrogenase (decarboxylating). [EC:1.4.4.2, EC:2.1.2.10]
sterol regulatory element binding protein cleavage definition: The proteolytic release of a transcriptionally active sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) from intracellular membranes, freeing it to move to the nucleus and upregulate transcription of target genes, in response to altered levels of one or more lipids. [GOC:bf, PMID:12923525]
Glycine Decarboxylase Complex definition: A enzyme complex that catalyzes the oxidative DECARBOXYLATION and DEAMINATION of GLYCINE into CARBON DIOXIDE; AMMONIA; NADH; and N5N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. It is composed of four different component protein components referred to as H, P, L, and T.
Monobasic Proteolytic Cleavage Site definition: A site on a protein that is a target for enzymatic cleavage, where the residue on the amino terminal side of the cleavage site is a basic amino acid that is not adjacent to other basic amino acids.
Nucleic Acid Cleavage definition: Nucleic Acid Cleavage involves a process of enzymatically cutting by the addition of a water molecule to high molecular weight polymers of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides covalently bound by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
cleavage of cytosolic proteins during apoptosis definition: The proteolytic degradation of proteins in the cytosol during apoptosis. [GOC:mah, ISBN:0815332181]
negative regulation of mRNA cleavage definition: Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of mRNA cleavage. [GOC:mah]
DNA Cleavage definition: A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.
cleavage of cytoskeletal proteins during apoptosis definition: The proteolytic degradation of cytoskeletal proteins during apoptosis, leading to the collapse of cytoskeletal structures. [GOC:mah, ISBN:0815332181]
cleavage furrow definition: In animal cells, the first sign of cleavage, or cytokinesis, is the appearance of a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate. A contractile ring containing actin and myosin, is located just inside the plasma membrane at the location of the furrow. Ring contraction is associated with centripetal growth of the membrane that deepens the cleavage furrow and divides the cytoplasm of the two daughter cells. While the term 'cleavage furrow' was initially associated with animal cells, such a structure occurs in many other types of cells, including unicellular protists. [ISBN:0805319409]
cleavage apparatus septin structure definition: Any of a series of structures composed of septins and septin-associated proteins localized to the cleavage plane which are involved in cytokinesis. [GOC:krc, PMID:12101122, PMID:15774761, PMID:16009555]
3-keto-5-aminohexanoate cleavage activity definition: Catalysis of the reaction: 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate + acetyl-CoA = L-3-aminobutyryl-CoA + acetoacetate. [PMID:13064]
 
 
deGerman
Dekolletee definition: [1] Halsausschnitt von Blusen, Kleidern et cetera bei der Damenoberbekleidung