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corticosteroid definition: any of the 21-carbon steroids elaborated by the adrenal cortex (excluding the sex hormones of adrenal origin) in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) released by the pituitary gland or to angiotensin II; called also adrenocorticoid, corticoid, adrenal cortical or adrenocortical steroid, and adrenocortical or cortical hormone.
corticosteroids definition: Hormones that have antitumor activity in lymphomas and lymphoid leukemias; in addition, corticosteroids (steroids) may be used for hormone replacement and for the management of some of the complications of cancer and its treatment.
Corticosteroid definition: Hormones synthesized in the cortex of the adrenal gland and consist of two subclasses, glucocorticoids (carbohydrate regulation) and mineralocorticoids (electrolyte regulation).
corticosteroid receptor definition: proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that specifically bind corticosteroids and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Transcortin definition: A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.
corticosteroid binding protein definition: blood transport proteins for corticosteroid molecules; for intracellular receptor, use CORTICOSTEROID RECEPTOR.
11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases definition: Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
steroid therapy definition: Treatment with corticosteroid drugs to reduce swelling, pain, and other symptoms of inflammation.
Topical Corticosteroid definition: Any synthetic steroid derivative exhibiting the same function as the naturally occurring corticosteroid hormone, formulated for topical application. Topical corticosteroids are applied to the skin where it exerts its effect, however, corticosteroids can be absorbed systemically after being applied locally. Topical corticosteroids are mainly used for the localized treatment of inflammation of the skin and help relieve symptoms such as itching, swelling and redness.
corticosteroid analog definition: synthetic or natural chemical compound which resembles in structure and/or function any of the naturally occuring 21-carbon steroids elaborated by the adrenal cortex (excluding the sex hormone of adrenal origin) in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) released by the pituitary gland or to angiotensin II.
corticosteroid inhibitor definition: any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the actions of corticosteroids.
corticosteroid side-chain-isomerase activity definition: Catalysis of the reaction: 11-deoxycorticosterone = 20-hydroxy-3-oxopregn-4-en-21-al. [EC:]
11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity definition: Catalysis of the reaction: an 11-beta-hydroxysteroid + NAD(P)+ = an 11-oxosteroid + NAD(P)H + H+. [EC:, PMID:15761036]
Corticosteroid Cardioprotection Pathway definition: Myocardial infarction damages heart tissue both during the initial ischemia and the subsequent reperfusion of tissues with oxygen. Corticosteroids can protect cardiac tissue from damage following a heart attack, but the mechanisms by which corticosteroids are cardioprotective have not been clear and negative side effects such as reduced wound healing may result from their use. Corticosteroids exert a variety of actions through binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a member of the steroid hormone receptor gene family. GR acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor, but some of the cardioprotective effects mediated by GR-bound corticosteroids are non-transcriptional in nature. Glucocorticoids are commonly used as anti-inflammatory drugs in a variety of conditions, and some of their effects in the heart result from inhibition of the inflammatory response of heart tissue to ischemia and reperfusion. NF-kB is a transcription factor involved in signaling by inflammatory factors such as TNF, and is repressed by glucocorticoids. Annexin-1 is a calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein whose expression is induced by corticosteroids and inhibits the infiltration of neutrophils into tissue, blocking reperfusion-induced inflammatory heart damage. A non-transcriptional cardioprotective effect of glucocorticoids is activation of NO production by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Glucocorticoids activate eNOS through activation of PI3 kinase and AKT and increased NO produced by eNOS can diffuse into surrounding tissues to prevent clotting and cause vasodilation. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor can also activate PI3 kinase and may synergize with glucocorticoids in this pathway. The atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a peptide secreted by the atrial wall in response to increased atrial pressure such as occurs during cardiac failure and to be decreased by myocardial infarction. Glucocorticoids increase the secretion of ANF by acting at the transcriptional level to increase expression of the pro-ANF peptide, perhaps inducing increased water excretion in the kidneys to reduce blood volume and reduce atrial pressure. The exploration of glucocorticoid responses may allow the identification of compounds that retain the cardioprotective activities but do not inhibit wound healing. Alternative mechanisms of eNOS activation may also provide a route to identify cardioprotective drugs. (BioCarta)
corticosteroid receptor signaling pathway definition: Any series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a corticosteroid binding to its receptor. [GOC:mah, PMID:11027914, PMID:12606724]
response to corticosteroid stimulus definition: A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a corticosteroid hormone stimulus. A corticosteroid is a steroid hormone that is produced in the adrenal cortex. Corticosteroids are involved in a wide range of physiologic systems such as stress response, immune response and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior. They include glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. [GOC:mah, PMID:11027914]
11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity definition: Catalysis of the reaction: an 11-beta-hydroxysteroid + NADP+ = an 11-oxosteroid + NADPH + H+. [EC:]
corticostéroïde definition: Hormone stéroïde naturelle sécrétée chez les êtres humains par la glande corticosurrénale.