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Interleukin-3 definition: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
interleukin 3 definition: lymphokine produced by antigen or mitogen activated T lymphocytes which stimulates proliferation of hematopoietic as well as lymphoid stem cells; a colony stimulating factor for bone marrow progenitor cells; supports growth and differentiation of early hematopoieteic and lymphoid stem cells as well as that of more mature hematopoietic cells, including granulocytes, macrophages and mast cells.
Interleukin-3 definition: A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to disease) that enhances the immune system's ability to fight tumor cells. These substances are normally produced by the body. They are also made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
Interleukin-3 definition: Human interleukin-3 (152 aa, 17 kDa precursor) is encoded by the human interleukin-3 (IL3) gene. This protein is a potent growth-promoting cytokine that enhances the ability of the immune system to fight tumor cells. IL-3 supports proliferation of many hematopoietic cell types. It is involved in cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis in addition to possessing neurotrophic activity. Abnormalities in this protein may be associated with neurologic disorders.
Hematopoietic Growth Factor definition: Endogenous growth factors which promote the development of blood cells.
Chemokine CXCL10 definition: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
IP 10 protein definition: induced protein of 10 kDa; a member of the chemokine family of proinflammatory cytokines and is secreted from a variety of cells in response to interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide stimulation; may participate in the regulation of angiogenesis during tumorigenesis.
Cytokines definition: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
cytokine definition: soluble factors elaborated by cells of the immune system that act on other cells to regulate their function.
Cytokine definition: A class of soluble glycoproteins which act nonenzymatically through specific receptors to regulate immune responses. Cytokines are derived from both immune and non-immune cells and are intercellular mediators that differ from hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands.
Cytokine Receptor gp130 definition: A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
Interleukin-10 definition: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
interleukin 10 definition: inhibits the production of cytokines by activated T cells, increases the viability of B cells, and induces expression of class II major histocompatibility complex genes.
Interleukin-10 definition: Expressed primarily in monocytes and less in lymphocytes by human IL10 Gene, Interleukin-10 is a cytokine with pleiotropic effects in immunoregulation and inflammation. It down-regulates expression of Th1 cytokines, MHC class II antigens, and costimulatory molecules on macrophages. It also enhances B cell survival, proliferation, and antibody production. This cytokine can block NF-kappa B activity, and is involved in the regulation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Studies in mice suggest that this cytokine as an essential immunoregulator in the intestinal tract. (From LocusLink)
Interleukin-9 definition: A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells.
interleukin 9 definition: produced by T cells and macrophages; acts as a growth factor for some T cell populations in vitro.
Interleukin-9 definition: Human interleukin-9 protein (144 aa 16 kDa precursor) is encoded by the human interleukin-9 (IL9) gene. This glycoprotein is secreted by T-cells and macrophages. It is a cytokine growth factor that activates STAT proteins through IL-9R and may serve as a regulator of both lymphoid and myeloid systems.
CD40 Ligand definition: CD40 ligand (261 aa, 29 kD) is a cellular division process protein that is encoded by the human CD40LG gene and has roles in inflammatory response, B-cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis.
CD40 Ligand definition: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
CD40-ligand definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to CD40-ligand. CD40-ligand, also known as CD40L/TRAP and CD154, is a type II membrane protein which binds to CD40, a cell surface receptor that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family; CD40 is expressed on B lymphocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells (DC), hematopoietic progenitors, endothelial cells and epithelial cells. Recombinant CD40-ligand may be used to activate DC ex vivo via CD40 binding; CD40-ligand-activated DC may provide or augment a protective antitumor immunity when administered in dendritic cell cancer vaccines. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43639&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43639&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C1437" NCI Thesaurus)
Receptors, Cytokine definition: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
cytokine receptor definition: cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes; postcoordinate with specific cytokine where appropriate.
Interleukin 10 Receptor Beta definition: Interleukin-10 Receptor Beta Chain (325 aa, 37 kD) is a cell motility protein that is encoded by the human IL10RB gene and has roles in immune response and signal transduction.
Interleukin 10 Receptor Beta definition: This protein belongs to the cytokine receptor family. It is an accessory chain essential for the active interleukin 10 receptor complex. Coexpression of this and IL10RA proteins has been shown to be required for IL10-induced signal transduction.
Anti-Cytokine Therapy definition: Drug treatment to reduce the activity of cytokines, particulary to control inflammation in disease modalities.
Chemokines definition: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
chemokine definition: family of 8-10 KD cytokines; chemoattract leukocytes.
Chemokine definition: Chemokines, short for chemotactic cytokines, are a complex superfamily of small, secreted proteins (6-14 kD) that were originally characterized by their effects on a variety of leukocytes. Usually chemokines act on more than one leukocyte, and a leukocyte can express more than one type of receptor. To date there are at least 40 known chemokines and at least 16 known receptors, and this number seems to increase daily.
Chemokine definition: Chemokines constitute a superfamily of small (8-10 kDa), inducible, secreted, pro-inflammatory cytokines that are involved in a variety of immune and inflammatory responses as well as in viral infection. Chemokines act primarily as chemoattractants and activators of specific types of leukocytes. Some members of this family were initially identified on the basis of their biological activities (e.g., IL-8, GRO), others were discovered using subtractive hybridization (e.g., RANTES) or signal sequence trap (e.g., PBSF/SDF-1)11 cloning strategies. They attract and activate leukocytes and regulate diverse cellular systems and organs ranging from blood vessels to the central nervous system.
Cytokine Inducible SH2-Containing Protein definition: Cytokine Inducible SH2-Containing Protein, encoded by the human CISH gene, is a cytokine-inducible negative regulator of cytokine signaling. This protein contains a SH2 domain and a SOCS box domain. The expression of this gene can be induced by IL2, IL3, GM-CSF and EPO in hematopoietic cells. Proteasome-mediated degradation of this protein is involved in the inactivation of the erythropoietin receptor. Association with EPOR may target this protein for proteolysis by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome pathway. The CISH protein is mainly monoubiquitinated (37 kD) but may also exist in a polyubiquitinated form (45 kD). Three isoforms (1, 1B, 1C) are produced by alternative splicing, and the tissue distribution of isoforms 1 and 1B is distinct. (From LocusLink, Swiss-Prot and NCI)
Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin definition: Widely expressed in heart, liver, testis, prostate, smooth muscle, keratinocytes, epithelia, and lung fibroblasts by human TSLP Gene (B Cell-Stimulating Cytokine Family), 159-aa 18-kDa hemopoietic cytokine Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin contains a 28-aa signal sequence, 6 conserved cysteines, 2 N-glycosylation sites, and 7 basic C-terminal amino acids (KKRRKRK). TSLP signals through a heterodimeric TSLPR(CRLF2)/IL7R Alpha receptor. Like IL7, TSLP stimulates STAT5 phosphorylation. Dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes coexpress IL7R and TSLPR. TSLP induces release of T cell-attracting chemokines from monocytes, expression of cytokines and costimulatory molecules in DCs, enhances DC maturation, and induces T-cell proliferation. TSLP also inhibits apoptosis in some cells. (NCI)
Cardiotrophin-Like Cytokine definition: Cardiotrophin-Like Cytokine, encoded by the human CLC gene, is a cytokine of the IL-6 family. This protein stimulates nerve cell survival and B-cell proliferation. (From LocusLink and NCI)
Cytokine Release Syndrome definition: A syndrome that occurs after therapeutic infusion of antibodies into the blood and is characterized by nausea, headache, tachycardia, hypotension, rash, and shortness of breath. It is caused by the release of cytokines from the cells that are targeted by the antibodies. Most patients experience a mild to moderate reaction; however, the reaction may be severe and life-threatening.
Reagents, Immunoassay, Immunology, Cytokine definition: Immunoassay reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative immunologic tests of a sample of body fluids (typically serum) to determine messenger proteins (i.e., cytokines) produced by the cells that regulate the intensity and duration of the immune response. These regulator proteins are named lymphokines when produced by T lymphocytes. Other groups of cytokines are the interleukins; the interferons, which play an important role in the enhancement of the immune response; and tumor necrosis factors, which have cytotoxic activity against tumor and virally infected cells. Cytokine determination reagents are frequently available in kits.
cytokine binding definition: Interacting selectively with a cytokine, any of a group of proteins that function to control the survival, growth and differentiation of tissues and cells, and which have autocrine and paracrine activity. [GOC:ai, GOC:bf, ISBN:0198599471]
cytokine activity definition: Functions to control the survival, growth, differentiation and effector function of tissues and cells. [ISBN:0198599471]
cytokine metabolic process definition: The chemical reactions and pathways involving cytokines, any of a group of proteins that function to control the survival, growth and differentiation of tissues and cells, and which have autocrine and paracrine activity. [GO_REF:0000022, GOC:bf, GOC:go_curators, GOC:mtg_15nov05, ISBN:0198599471]
cytokine biosynthetic process definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of cytokines, any of a group of proteins that function to control the survival, growth and differentiation of tissues and cells, and which have autocrine and paracrine activity. [GOC:bf, ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology", ISBN:0198599471]
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway definition: Any series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a cytokine or chemokine binding to a cell surface receptor. [GOC:mah]
cytokine production definition: The appearance of a cytokine due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels. [GOC:add, ISBN:0781735149 "Fundamental Immunology"]
cytokine secretion definition: The regulated release of cytokines from a cell or group of cells. Cytokines are any of a group of proteins that function to control the survival, growth and differentiation of tissues and cells, and which have autocrine and paracrine activity. [GOC:ai, GOC:bf, ISBN:0198599471]
CC Cytokine Gene definition: CC Cytokine Genes encode Beta Chemokines, CC-type dual-cysteine chemokines with adjacent cysteine residues in their primary sequence that act as chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, but not for neutrophils. (NCI)
CISH Gene definition: This gene plays a role in cellular signaling.
CXC Cytokine Gene definition: CXC Cytokine Genes encode Alpha Chemokines, CXC-type dual-cysteine chemokines with paired cysteine residues separated by a non-cysteine residue in their primary sequence that act as chemoattractants for neutrophils, but not for monocytes. (NCI)
Chemokine (C Motif) Ligand 2 definition: Expressed, like XCL1, in activated T cells (low levels in unstimulated cells) by human XCL2 Gene (Intercrine Gamma Family), 114-aa 12.5-kDa (precursor) secreted Chemokine (C Motif) Ligand 2 is most homologous to CCL8 and CCL3 chemokines, but lacks the first and third cysteines characteristic of CC and CXC chemokines and is chemotactic for lymphocytes, but not for monocytes or neutrophils. XCL2 differs from XCL1 (a separate gene product) by only 2 amino acids; XCL2 encodes His7 and Arg8 (mature protein) instead of Asp and Lys as in XCL1. XCL2 induces migration of cells expressing XCR1. Small (8-14 kD), mostly basic, chemokines interact with 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors and regulate cell trafficking of leukocytes, as well as development, homeostasis, and immune system function. (NCI)
Cytokine Gene definition: Cytokines are soluble glycoproteins released by cells of the immune system, which act nonenzymatically through specific receptors to regulate immune responses. Cytokines resemble hormones in that they act at low concentrations and bind with high affinity to a specific receptor.
Cytokine Receptor Gene definition: Cytokine Receptor Genes encode cell surface Cytokine Receptors that bind paracrine or autocrine cytokine growth factors that stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as activation of phagocytic cells. Cytokines are secreted by inflammatory leukocytes (lymphokines), by monocytes or macrophages (monokines), and by various other cells. Interleukin lymphokines, targeted to cells of hematopoietic origin, are not secreted by leukocytes but affect the cellular responses of leukocytes. (NCI)
IL10 Gene definition: This gene plays an anti-inflammatory role in immune processes and is involved in a variety of diseases.
IL9 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in inflammatory processes and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma.
Neuropoietic Cytokine definition: Neuropoietic Cytokine glycoproteins act with high affinity through specific receptors as local paracrine or autocrine intercellular mediators to regulate neuronal growth, regeneration, survival, and differentiation.
Cytokine-Inducible Kinase definition: Cytokine-Inducible Kinase, encoded by the human CNK gene, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is involved in regulating M phase functions during the cell cycle. This membrane-associated protein may play a role in regulation of cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. It may also be part of the signaling network controlling cellular adhesion. It is phosphorylated as cells enter mitosis and dephosphorylated as cells exit mitosis. Cytokine and cellular adhesion trigger CNK induction. CNK contains both a catalytic domain and a putative regulatory domain. It binds to the calcium/integrin-binding protein (CIB) and this interaction probably occurs via the polo-box domain. Transcripts expression appears to be down-regulated in primary lung tumor. (From LocusLink, Swiss-Prot and NCI)
Interleukin 6 Signal Transducer definition: Widely expressed (not restricted to IL6 responsive cells) by human IL6ST Gene (Type I Cytokine Receptor 2 Family), heterodimeric type I membrane protein (isoform 1) and secreted (isoform 2) Interleukin 6 Signal Transducer contains 5 fibronectin type III domains, an Ig-like C2-type domain, a BOX 1 motif required for JAK interaction/activation, and a WSXWS motif necessary for protein folding, intracellular transport, and cell-surface receptor binding. Part of cytokine receptor complexes, IL6ST is a signal transducer dependent on receptor binding for activation by many cytokines (IL6, CNTF, LIF, IL11, CT1, and OSM) that can utilize gp130 in signal transmission. IL6ST may regulate myocyte apoptosis and have a role in embryonic development. Isoform 2 is an autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis but it is not specific to RA. (NCI)
Interleukin-17C definition: Expressed in activated T cells by human IL17C Gene (IL-17 Family), 197-aa 22-kDa (precursor) secreted cytokine Interleukin-17C (IL17-related) may stimulate release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta from monocytes in inflammatory immune responses. IL17C differs from IL17 in its pattern of expression, biologic activity, and lack of interaction with IL17 receptor. (NCI)
PLK3 Gene definition: This gene is involved in the regulation of mitosis.
Class I Cytokine Receptor definition: A cytokine receptor is a protein on the cell surface that specifically binds cytokine ligands which are small proteins secreted by immune cells. These receptors mediate molecular functions such as signal transduction.
Cytokine Activation definition: Through decreased degradation, or increased production or receptor binding, Cytokine Activation involves induction of the activity of a class of soluble non-antibody paracrine or autocrine signaling glycoproteins (cytokines) secreted by immune cells that regulate immune responses through high affinity binding with specific receptors. Cytokines act as intercellular mediators regulating immune and inflammatory responses. Activation enhances cell proliferation and differentiation, secretion of other biologically active molecules, and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Cytokine Degradation definition: Cytokine Degradation consists of conjugation, transport, oxidation, and/or proteolysis of a class of soluble non-antibody paracrine or autocrine signaling glycoproteins (cytokines) secreted by immune cells that regulate immune responses through high affinity binding with specific receptors. Cytokines act as intercellular mediators regulating immune and inflammatory responses. Activation enhances cell proliferation and differentiation, secretion of other biologically active molecules, and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Cytokine Network Pathway definition: Several different cell types coordinate their efforts as part of the immune system, including B cells, T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils. Each of these cell types has a distinct role in the immune system, and each communicates with other immune cells using secreted factors called cytokines, including interleukins, TNF, and the interferons. Macrophages phagocytose foreign bodies and are antigen-presenting cells, using cytokines to stimulate specific antigen dependent responses by B and T cells and non-specific responses by other cell types. T cells secrete a variety of factors to coordinate and stimulate immune responses to specific antigen, such as the role of helper T cells in B cell activation in response to antigen. The proliferation and activation of eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils respond to cytokines as well. Cytokine communication is often local, within a tissue or between cells in close proximity. Each of the cytokines is secreted by one set of cells and provokes a response in another target set of cells, often including the cell that secretes the cytokine. Some cytokines, like IL-1, interferons and TNF, stimulate a broad inflammatory response in response to infection or injury. Other cytokines have more specific functions such the following examples. IL-2 stimulates the proliferation and activation of B and T cells. IL-4 plays a role in the differentiation of Th2 cells, in allergic responses, and in the switching of antibody types. IL-5 stimulates the production and maturation of eosinophils during inflammation. IL-8 is a chemokine, a chemotactic factor that attracts neutrophils, basophils and T cells to sites of inflammation. IL-12 and IL-18 are involved in helper T cell differentiation. IL-10 apparently acts to repress secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. The complex interplay of these different cytokine functions with immune cells is essential for correct immune function. (BioCarta)
Cytokine Receptor Binding definition: Cytokine Receptor Binding involves a temporary non-covalent highly specific and high affinity interaction through intermolecular physical forces of attraction and spatial complementarity with a group of cell surface intrinsic membrane proteins that mediate the immunoregulatory effects of secreted paracrine cytokine signaling molecules through modification of the activity of signal transduction pathways.
Cytokine Signaling definition: Cytokine Signaling involves leukocyte secretion of soluble short-range low molecular weight hormone-like intercellular messenger proteins that communicate with immune and other cells to coordinate an immune response. Cytokines primarily stimulate or inhibit activation, differentiation, proliferation, or function of phagocytes, lymphocytes, and hematopoietic stem cells in immune and inflammatory responses to bacteria, virally infected cells, and cancer cells.
Cytokine Stabilization definition: Cytokine Stabilization inhibits conjugation, transport, oxidation, or proteolysis of a class of soluble non-antibody paracrine or autocrine signaling glycoproteins (cytokines) secreted by immune cells that regulate immune responses through high affinity binding with specific receptors. Cytokines act as intercellular mediators regulating immune and inflammatory responses. Activation enhances cell proliferation and differentiation, secretion of other biologically active molecules, and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Cytokine Suppression definition: Through increased degradation, or decreased production or receptor binding, Cytokine Suppression involves interference with, or restraint of, the activity of a class of soluble non-antibody paracrine or autocrine signaling glycoproteins (cytokines) secreted by immune cells that regulate immune responses through high affinity binding with specific receptors. Cytokines act as intercellular mediators regulating immune and inflammatory responses. Suppression decreases cell proliferation and differentiation, secretion of other biologically active molecules, and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Recombinant Interleukin 10 definition: A recombinant cytokine chemically identical to or similar to interleukin-10 (IL-10) secreted by certain leukocytes with immunomodulatory activities. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, capable of inhibiting synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as Interferon-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF. However, it also has stimulatory effects on certain T cells, mast cells, and B cells, as well as inducing expression of class II major histocompatibility complex.
cytokines definition: A class of substances that are produced by cells of the immune system and can affect the immune response. Cytokines can also be produced in the laboratory by recombinant DNA technology and given to people to affect immune responses.
PLK3 wt Allele definition: Human PLK3 wild-type allele is located in the vicinity of 1p34.1 and is approximately 6 kb in length. This allele, which encodes serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK3 protein, plays a role in the regulation of M phase functions during the cell cycle. The PLK3 gene is down-regulated in certain types of cancer (head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, lung carcinomas) and overexpressed in other types of cancer (breast carcinomas and highly-proliferating malignant epithelial ovarian tumors).
Cytokine Receptor Activation definition: Cytokine receptor activation involves high-affinity binding of a cytokine-signaling ligand to specific cell surface target receptor proteins. Upon binding, conformational and functional changes take place in the receptor protein. Altered interaction of the ligand-bound receptor induces changes in cellular physiology through modification of the activity of one or more signal transduction pathways.
B cell cytokine production definition: Any process that contributes to cytokine production by a B cell. [GOC:add, ISBN:0781735149 "Fundamental Immunology"]
Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells definition: A preparation of autologous lymphocytes with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are CD3- and CD56-positive, non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted, natural killer (NK)-like T lymphocytes, generated ex-vivo by incubation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-1, and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and then expanded. When reintroduced back to patients after autologous stem cell transplantation, CIK cells may recognize and kill tumor cells associated with minimal residual disease (MRD). CIK cells may have enhanced cytotoxic activity compared to lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells.
Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells definition: Mononuclear leukocytes that have been expanded in CELL CULTURE and activated with CYTOKINES such as INTERLEUKIN-2 to produce large numbers of highly cytotoxic cells.
cytokine receptor activity definition: Combining with a cytokine to initiate a change in cell activity. [GOC:add, GOC:mah]
Cytokine Measurement definition: The determination of type and amount of cytokines in a sample.
 
 
frFrench
cytokine definition: Substance soluble de communication synthétisée par les cellules du système immunitaire ou par d’autres cellules et/ou tissus, agissant à distance sur d’autres cellules pour en réguler l’activité et la fonction.