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Hepatocyte Growth Factor definition: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
hepatocyte growth factor definition: newly identified and characterized growth factor; involved in regulating cell migration.
Hepatocyte Growth Factor definition: Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor is also known as Scatter Factor and Hepatopoeitin A. HGF is a potent mitogen for mature parenchymal hepatocyte cells and acts as a growth factor for a broad spectrum of tissues and cell types, including renal tubular epithelial cells, epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes. A single chain precursor is cleaved to 70 kD and 30kD chains that are linked by one disulfide bond. Both the single chain and cleaved form are active.
Cytokines definition: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
cytokine definition: soluble factors elaborated by cells of the immune system that act on other cells to regulate their function.
Cytokine definition: A class of soluble glycoproteins which act nonenzymatically through specific receptors to regulate immune responses. Cytokines are derived from both immune and non-immune cells and are intercellular mediators that differ from hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands.
Receptors, Cytokine definition: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
cytokine receptor definition: cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes; postcoordinate with specific cytokine where appropriate.
Chemokines definition: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
chemokine definition: family of 8-10 KD cytokines; chemoattract leukocytes.
Chemokine definition: Chemokines, short for chemotactic cytokines, are a complex superfamily of small, secreted proteins (6-14 kD) that were originally characterized by their effects on a variety of leukocytes. Usually chemokines act on more than one leukocyte, and a leukocyte can express more than one type of receptor. To date there are at least 40 known chemokines and at least 16 known receptors, and this number seems to increase daily.
Chemokine definition: Chemokines constitute a superfamily of small (8-10 kDa), inducible, secreted, pro-inflammatory cytokines that are involved in a variety of immune and inflammatory responses as well as in viral infection. Chemokines act primarily as chemoattractants and activators of specific types of leukocytes. Some members of this family were initially identified on the basis of their biological activities (e.g., IL-8, GRO), others were discovered using subtractive hybridization (e.g., RANTES) or signal sequence trap (e.g., PBSF/SDF-1)11 cloning strategies. They attract and activate leukocytes and regulate diverse cellular systems and organs ranging from blood vessels to the central nervous system.
Hematopoiesis Pathway definition: The process of hematopoiesis is regulated by various cytokines. The combination of cytokines stimulates the proliferation and/or differentiation of the various hematopoietic cell types. Bone marrow stromal cells are the major source of hematopoietic cytokines in the non-infectious state. In the presence of infection, cytokines produced by activated macrophages and TH cells induce hematopoietic activity. The induction by cytokines results in rapid expansion of the population of white blood cells to fight infection. (BioCarta)
Inflammatory Response Pathway definition: Inflammation is a protective response to infection by the immune system that requires communication between different classes of immune cells to coordinate their actions. Acute inflammation is an important part of the immune response, but chronic inappropriate inflammation can lead to destruction of tissues in autoimmune disorders and perhaps neurodegenerative or cardiovascular disease. Secreted cytokine proteins provide signals between immune cells to coordinate the inflammatory response. Some cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF act to broadly provoke the inflammatory response while others act on specific types of immune cells. Macrophages and other phagocytotic cells provide a front-line defense against bacterial infection. Macrophages stimulate the inflammatory responses of neutrophils, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells in response to infection by secreting IL-1 and TNF. IL-1 and TNF cause fever through alteration of the body temperature set-point in the hypothalamus. Fibroblasts and endothelial cells respond to IL-1 and TNF by recruiting more immune cells to the site of inflammation. Secreted IL-8 is a chemokine that attracts neutrophils to sites of infection. Macrophages also present antigen to T helper cells that play a central role in coordinating immune responses. T helper cells induce clonal expansion of T cells that respond to antigen, with IL-2 as a key mediator of T cell proliferation and activation. TGF-beta is a negative regulator of proliferation in many cells, having anti-inflammatory actions in some settings. The cytotoxic activity of Natural Killer cells (NK cells) and lymphokine activated killer cells (LAK cells) toward viral infected or tumor cells is stimulated by IL-2 and other cytokines. T helpers secrete IL-3 and IL-5 to stimulate eosinophil proliferation and activation. Eosinophils are involved in the immune response to parasitic infection. T helper cells are required to stimulate B cell responses as well, with the cytokines IL-10, IL-4 and other cytokines regulating the clonal selection and differentiation of antigen-specific B cells to form antibody-secreting plasma B cells and memory cells. In addition to inducing activation and proliferation of specific differentiated immune cells, cytokines act on hematopoietic stem cells, causing their proliferation and differentiation into the full range of immune cells. (BioCarta)
Recombinant Neuropoietic Cytokines definition: Recombinant forms of endogenous neuropoietic cytokines.
cytokines definition: A class of substances that are produced by cells of the immune system and can affect the immune response. Cytokines can also be produced in the laboratory by recombinant DNA technology and given to people to affect immune responses.