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Antigens, Differentiation definition: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
differentiation antigen definition: antigens normally only seen at particular phases of differentiation of a cell type.
Differentiation Antigen definition: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Cell Differentiation definition: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
cell differentiation definition: environmentally sensitive, genetically controlled, normally irreversible process in multicellular organisms whereby immature precursor cells become functionally and morphologically distinct, leading to the formation of various organs, tissues, and cell types.
cell differentiation definition: The process whereby relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate. [ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
Cell Differentiation definition: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function which takes place during the development of the embryo and leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cell Differentiation definition: The process during which young, immature (unspecialized) cells take on individual characteristics and reach their mature (specialized) form and function.
Cell Differentiation Process definition: A Cell Differentiation Process in multicellular organisms consists of genetically controlled activities of biologic molecules, complexes, subcellular components, or cells involved in progressive restriction of cellular developmental potential in which immature (unspecialized) precursor cells become functionally and morphologically mature (specialized), leading to the formation of organs, tissues, and specialized cell types.
Sex Differentiation definition: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION (GENETICS). Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
sex differentiation definition: differentiation of male and female tissues and organs during embryogenesis, but after sex determination.
sex differentiation definition: The establishment of the sex of an organism by physical differentiation. [GOC:ai]
Differentiation Therapy definition: Drug therapy aimed at forcing cancer cells to resume the process of maturation and therefore to induce tumor to a more differentiated, less aggressive state. Differentiation therapy restrains cancer cells growth and facilitates the application of more conventional therapies.
Genetic Drift definition: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
Genetic Drift definition: The random change of the occurrence of a particular gene in a population, genetic drift is thought to be one cause of speciation when a group of organisms is separated from its parent population. (NCI)
fat cell differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an adipocyte, an animal connective tissue cell specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat. [GOC:go_curators, http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/]
plasmatocyte differentiation definition: The process by which a hemocyte precursor cell acquires the characteristics of the phagocytic blood-cell type, the plasmatocyte. Plasmatocytes are a class of arthropod hemocytes important in the cellular defense response. [PMID:11921077, PMID:8174791]
keratinocyte differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a keratinocyte. [GOC:mah]
Keratinocyte Differentiation definition: Differentiation of keratinocytes to the fully differentiated keratinocyte phenotype.
lymphocyte differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized precursor cell acquires specialized features of B cells, T cells, or natural killer cells. [GOC:go_curators]
mechanoreceptor differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a mechanoreceptor, a cell specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. [GOC:jl, http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/]
melanocyte differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a melanocyte. [GOC:mah]
basophil differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized myeloid precursor cell acquires specialized features of a basophil cell. [GOC:jic, GOC:mah]
eosinophil differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized myeloid precursor cell acquires the specializes features of an eosinophil. [GOC:mah]
erythrocyte differentiation definition: The process by which a myeloid precursor cell acquires specializes features of an erythrocyte. [GOC:mah]
macrophage differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized monocyte acquires the specialized features of a macrophage. [GOC:add, ISBN:0781735149 "Fundamental Immunology"]
megakaryocyte differentiation definition: The process by which a myeloid precursor cell acquires specializes features of a megakaryocyte. [GOC:mah]
monocyte differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized myeloid precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a monocyte. [GOC:mah]
neutrophil differentiation definition: The process by which a myeloid precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a neutrophil. [GOC:mah]
myoblast differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a myoblast. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers. [CL:0000056, GOC:go_curators, GOC:mtg_muscle, http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk]
neuron differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a neuron. [GOC:mah]
osteoblast differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an osteoblast, the mesodermal cell that gives rise to bone. [GOC:jic, http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk]
osteoclast differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized monocyte acquires the specialized features of a osteoclast cell. [GOC:add, ISBN:0781735149 "Fundamental Immunology", PMID:12161749]
cardioblast differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized mesodermal cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cardioblast. [GOC:go_curators]
atrichoblast differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an atrichoblast, a root epidermal cell that will not give rise to a root hair. [GOC:tb]
glial cell differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a glial cell. [GOC:go_curators, GOC:mtg_sensu]
granulocyte differentiation definition: The process by which a myeloid precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a granulocyte. Granulocytes are a class of leukocytes characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. These cells are active in allergic immune reactions such as arthritic inflammation and rashes. This class includes basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils. [GOC:ecd, http://life.nthu.edu.tw/~g864204/dict-search1.htm]
oenocyte differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an oenocyte. Oenocytes are large secretory cells found in clusters underlying the epidermis of larval abdominal segments. [GOC:go_curators]
oocyte differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized immature germ cell acquires the specialized features of a mature female gamete. [GOC:go_curators, GOC:mtg_sensu]
iridophore differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an iridophore. Iridophores are pigment cells derived from the neural crest. They contain guanidine or other purine crystals deposited in stacks called reflecting platets or iridisomes. This gives them a silver, gold, or iridescent appearance. [GOC:jic, GOC:mh, PMID:11858836]
differentiation definition: In cancer, refers to how mature (developed) the cancer cells are in a tumor. Differentiated tumor cells resemble normal cells and tend to grow and spread at a slower rate than undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumor cells, which lack the structure and function of normal cells and grow uncontrollably.
Differentiation Inducer definition: A class of agents that induce the differentiation or maturation of cells, specifically neoplastic cells, resulting in decreases in tumor growth and metastasis. (NCI04)
Differentiation Inhibitor definition: Substances that inhibits differentiation of cells.
Differentiation and Growth definition: A funding category for studies concerned with cell growth or cell differentiation.
Keratinocyte Differentiation Pathway definition: The epidermis, which provides a protective barrier that undergoes a constant renewal, is a multi-layered tissue with the proliferating cells located in the basal layer. As cells leave the basal layer they undergo significant differentiation and biochemical and morphological remodeling. The final differentiation results in the formation of corneocytes. In vitro keratinocytes mimic this process. Several genes mark keratinocyte specific differentiation. Among the most frequently tracked markers are transglutaminase, cystatin and involucrin. Keratinocyte differentiation studies have identified and provided significant detail regarding the involvement of three of the 4 major MAP kinase pathways from several diverse stimuli such as EGF, FAS, TNF and calcium influx. The keratinocyte differentiation cascades also provide for detailed study of the functions of individual PKC isoforms and it is interesting to note the contrasting functions of the PKC isoforms in this process. In recent studies it has been determined that the cPKC (conventional/classical Protein Kinase C) isoforms, which are calcium-, phospholipid-, and diacylglycerol-dependent are inhibitory where as the nPKC (novel Protein Kinase C) isoforms which are calcium independent are stimulatory for keratinocyte differentiation markers. (BioCarta)
lamellocyte differentiation definition: The process by which a relatively unspecialized hemocyte precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a lamellocyte. Lamellocytes are a hemocyte lineage that exists only in larvae, but are seldom observed in healthy animals. Lamellocytes differentiate massively in the lymph glands after parasitization and are large flat cells devoted to encapsulation of invaders too large to be phagocytosed by plasmatocytes. [GOC:bf, PMID:14734104]
hemocyte differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the characteristics of a mature hemocyte. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen. [GOC:jl, GOC:mtg_sensu, http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/, PMID:9550723]
heterocyst differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a heterocyst, a differentiated cell in certain cyanobacteria whose purpose is to fix nitrogen. [GOC:jl]
oligodendrocyte differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an oligodendrocyte. An oligodendrocyte is a type of glial cell involved in myelinating the axons of neurons in the central nervous system. [GOC:vp, PMID:15139015]
astrocyte differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an astrocyte. An astrocyte is the most abundant type of glial cell. Astrocytes provide support for neurons and regulate the environment in which they function. [GOC:vp, PMID:15139015]
Neuroendocrine Differentiation definition: A morphological appearance characteristic of invasive carcinomas in which there is focal or extensive transformation (metaplasia) of nests of malignant epithelial cells into cells which resemble neurosecretory cells morphologically, immunohistochemically, and by electron microscopy.
cardiac muscle cell differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a cardiac muscle cell. Cardiac muscle cells are striated muscle cells that are responsible for heart contraction. [GOC:devbiol]
chondrocyte differentiation definition: The process whereby a chondroblast acquires specialized structural and/or functional features of a chondrocyte. A chondrocyte is a polymorphic cell that forms cartilage. [GOC:dph]
microglia differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a microglial cell. Microglia are glial cells that act as the immune cells of the central nervous system. They form part of the supporting structure of this system. [GOC:ef]
neuroblast differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a neuroblast. There are at least four stages through which the pluripotent cells of epiblast or blastula become neuroblasts. [GOC:ef, ISBN:0878932585]
leukocyte differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized hemopoietic precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a plasmacytoid dendritic cell or any cell of the myeloid leukocyte or lymphocyte lineages. [GOC:add, PMID:16551264]
leucophore differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a leucophore cell. Leucophores are pigment cells derived from the neural crest. They contain uric acid or other purine crystals, deposited in stacks called leucosomes. This gives them a white appearance. [GOC:jic, GOC:mh]
erythrophore differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an erythrophore cell. Erythrophores are pigment cells derived from the neural crest. They contain pteridine and/or carotenoid pigments in structures called pterinosomes or erythrosomes. This gives them an orange to red appearance. [GOC:jic, GOC:mh]
cyanophore differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a cyanophore cell. Cyanophores are pigment cells derived from the neural crest. They contain a blue pigment of unknown chemical composition. The pigment is stored in fibrous organelles termed cyanosomes. [GOC:jic, GOC:mh]
Cluster of Differentiation definition: A designation for cell surface molecules present on leukocytes.
prolactin secreting cell differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized structural and/or functional features of a prolactin secreting cell. A prolactin secreting cell is an acidophilic cell of the anterior pituitary that produces prolactin. [GOC:dph]
adrenocorticotropin hormone secreting cell differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized structural and/or functional features of a adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting cell. An adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting cell is a basophil cell of the anterior pituitary that produces adrenocorticotropic hormone, or corticotropin. [GOC:dph]
microsporocyte differentiation definition: The process aimed at the progression of a microsporocyte cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell. A microsporocyte is a diploid (2n) cell that undergoes meiosis and forms four haploid (1n) microspores; also called microspore mother cell and, in seed plants, pollen mother cell. [CL:0000248 "Cell type ontology", PMID:16751349]
myotube differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a myotube cell. Myotube differentiation starts with myoblast fusion and the appearance of specific cell markers (this is the cell development step). Then individual myotubes can fuse to form bigger myotubes and start to contract. Myotubes are multinucleated cells that are formed when proliferating myoblasts exit the cell cycle, differentiate and fuse. [GOC:mtg_muscle]
hepatocyte differentiation definition: The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a hepatocyte. A hepatocyte is specialized epithelial cell that is organized into interconnected plates called lobules, and is the main structural component of the liver. [CL:0000182, PMID:7588884]
differentiation definition: Différenciation.
distinguishing definition: Distinction, spécificité.
 
 
frFrench
différentiation definition: Opération par laquelle, une fonction étant donnée, on en trouve la différentielle.