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Cochlear Implants definition: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
Stimulators, Electrical, Auditory, Cochlear definition: Electrical stimulators that apply stimuli to the cochlea. These stimulators consist of an electrode array that is surgically inserted in one cochlea, a receiver that is implanted in the skull near the ear and connected to the electrode array, and a speech transducer that is worn externally. The speech transducer converts sound into electrical signals that are transmitted to the receiver, which in turn stimulate the cochlea through the electrode array. These stimulators are used for the partial restoration of auditory sensation to profoundly deaf patients.
cochlear implant definition: electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function; in the cochlea, the hair cells may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers, the device electrically stimulates the cochlear nerve to create sound sensation.
Electrodes definition: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
electrode definition: conductor by which a current enters or leaves a nonmetallic medium; in electrotherapy, electrodes are instruments with a point or surface from which to transmit electric current to the body of a patient or to another instrument; in electrodiagnosis, they are needles or metal plates.
Electrodes definition: Electrical conductors of different sizes and shapes (plates, needles, etc.) that are designed to be applied to a dedicated body target (either invasively or non-invasively) in order to capture and transmit an electrical signal to a type of receiver (e.g., monitor, analyzer, etc). Electrodes can be reusable or disposable. Some electrodes are designed specifically for use in magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] environments, i.e., MRI-safe ECG electrodes, and are made from nonmagnetic materials so that they can be safely used in an MRI suite.
enzyme electrode definition: combination of any electrochemical probe with a thin layer (10 - 200mm) of immobilized enzyme; in these devices, the function of the enzyme is to provide selectivity by virtue of its biological affinity for a particular substrate molecule.
Electrodes, Implanted definition: Electric conductors through which an electric current enters or leaves a medium. When inserted, usually surgically, they are referred to as implanted electrodes.
Microelectrodes definition: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
microelectrode definition: electrode with a very small tip; can be used to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells.
ELECTRODE MEASUREMENT, BLOOD-GASES (PCO2, PO2) AND BLOOD PH definition: A blood gases (carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen partial pressure) and blood pH test system is a device intended to measure certain gases in blood, serum, plasma or pH of blood, serum, and plasma. Measurements of blood gases (carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen partial pressure) and blood pH are used in the diagnosis and treatment of life-threatening acid-base disturbances. (Note: the symbols used in the published regulation have been replaced by the phrase ``carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen partial pressure'' because the symbols could not be rendered in ASCII text--This parenthetic clause is not in the regulation.).
Electrodes, Blood Gas definition: An electrode used in chemical analysis of the blood for the concentration of dissolved gases or pH.
Electrodes, Blood Gas, Oxygen definition: Electrodes used in the chemical analysis of the blood for the concentration of oxygen. The electrode usually consists of a platinum wire or dropping mercury; oxygen concentration in blood samples is measured by polarography.
Electrodes, Blood Gas, pH definition: An electrical conducting device used to measure the acid-base status of blood by determining its hydrogen ion concentration.
Electrodes, Catheter Tip definition: Electrodes located on the tips of catheters that sense the presence of special indicators for cardiac output or left-to-right heart shunt determinations. These electrodes may also be used for electrocardiogram detection.
Electrothermal Cautery Units definition: Devices designed to coagulate and/or destroy tissue by applying an electric current to a high-resistance element, intended mainly to control bleeding and for therapeutic procedures. Electrothermal cautery units do not deliver electric current to the tissue; the high-resistance tip becomes heated when an electric current is passed through it or when a quartz glass light guide converts infrared radiation to heat. These devices typically include a power source (either line or battery) that delivers the electric current; appropriate controls; a pencil- or pistol-like handle (handpiece), including the thermal probe; and an electric cord to connect the probe to the power source. Most units are available with a set of probes for different procedures (e.g., dermatologic, gynecologic, hemorrhoid treatment); some probes include an internal irrigation system. Dedicated electrocautery units using high-resistance elements or infrared lamps are available. The units are frequently controlled by a computer that facilitates the selection of the appropriate temperature and/or energy level.
Electrodes, Cystoscopic definition: An electrical conductor that is placed in contact with the bladder to stimulate it and/or record its electrical activity for diagnostic examination.
Electrodes, Defibrillation definition: Electrodes used to transmit electric shock from the defibrillator unit to the patient in order to terminate fibrillation and restore regular heartbeat.
Electrodes, Defibrillation/Pacing definition: Disposable devices that are attached to the patient's thorax for the purpose of delivering a defibrillator shock or pacing pulses to the heart. These devices typically consist of a layer of metal foil sandwiched between a conductive medium and an insulated foam or plastic backing.
Electrodes, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation definition: Electrodes designed to be placed on the patient's skin to deliver electrical stimulus to reduce/eliminate pain.
ELECTRODE, ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH definition: An electrocardiograph electrode is the electrical conductor which is applied to the surface of the body to transmit the electrical signal at the body surface to a processor that produces an electrocardiogram or vectorcardiogram.
Electrodes, Electrocardiographic definition: Electronic conductors which are applied to the surface of the body to transmit the electrical signal on the body surface to a processor that produces an electrocardiogram or vectorcardiogram.
ELECTRODE, ELECTRODCARDIOGRAPH, MULTI-FUNCTION definition: An electrocardiograph electrode is the electrical conductor which is applied to the surface of the body to transmit the electrical signal at the body surface to a processor that produces an electrocardiogram or vectorcardiogram.
Electrodes, Electroencephalographic definition: Electrodes designed to be placed on a patient's scalp (and in some cases, other anatomic locations) to measure, amplify, display in graphic form, and record the weak electrical signals generated by the brain. Electroencephalography is useful in observing and diagnosing a variety of neurologic conditions, including epilepsy, related convulsive disorders, and brain death. It can also be used to evaluate psychiatric disorders and differentiate among various psychiatric and neurologic conditions. In addition, electroencephalographic studies can assist in localizing tumors or lesions on or near the surface of the brain. There are also electroencephalography electrodes designed to be placed in specific anatomic locations, such as the nasopharyngeal cavity (see "Electrodes, Nasopharyngeal").
Electrodes, Electromyographic definition: Electrodes designed to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to sense bioelectrical signals. These devices are typically needle electrodes.
ELECTRODE, CORNEAL definition: A corneal electrode is an AC-powered device, usually part of a special contact lens, intended to be applied directly to the cornea to provide data showing the changes in electrical potential in the retina after electroretinography (stimulation by light).
ELECTRODE, ELECTROSURGICAL definition: An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and control bleeding by use of high-frequency electrical current.
Electrodes, Electrosurgical definition: Devices intended to provide electrical connection (possibly in conjunction with a cable) between the output terminals of an electrosurgical generator and the patient.
PLATE, PATIENT definition: An endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories is a device used to perform electrosurgical procedures through an endoscope. This generic type of device includes the electrosurgical generator, patient plate, electric biopsy forceps, electrode, flexible snare, electrosurgical alarm system, electrosurgical power supply unit, electrical clamp, self-opening rigid snare, flexible suction coagulator electrode, patient return wristlet, contact jelly, adaptor to the cord for transurethral surgical instruments, the electric cord for transurethral surgical instruments, and the transurethral desiccator.
ELECTRODE, PACEMAKER, PERMANENT definition: (a) A temporary pacemaker electrode is a device consisting of flexible insulated electrical conductors with one end connected to an external pacemaker pulse generator and the other end applied to the heart. The device is used to transmit a pacing electrical stimulus from the pulse generator to the heart and/or to transmit the electrical signal of the heart to the pulse generator. (b) A permanent pacemaker electrode is a device consisting of flexible insulated electrical conductors with one end connected to an implantable pacemaker pulse generator and the other end applied to the heart. The device is used to transmit a pacing electrical stimulus from the pulse generator to the heart and/or to transmit the electrical signal of the heart to the pulse generator.
ELECTRODE, NASOPHARYNGEAL definition: A nasopharyngeal electrode is an electrode which is temporarily placed in the nasopharyngeal region for the purpose of recording electrical activity.
Electrodes, Nasopharyngeal definition: Electrodes designed to be placed on the mucosa of the nasopharynx to measure, amplify, display in graphic form, and record the electrical signals generated by the brain, e.g., for electroencephalography. These devices are also capable of capturing nerve somatosensory evoked potentials, i.e., the brain's response to a repetitive stimulus along a specific nerve pathway.
Electrodes, Neuromuscular Stimulator definition: Electrodes designed to apply electrical stimuli to nerves and/or muscles from external and/or implantable neuromuscular stimulators. These electrodes may be external devices fixed on the skin over the nerves and muscles, electrodes attached to probes appropriate for insertion in the natural cavities of the body, or implantable devices fixed directly on or around the nerves and muscles. Dedicated neuromuscular stimulator electrodes are available for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications, including gait, grasp, muscle strengthening, incontinence, bladder evacuation, swallowing, and ejaculation.
Electrodes, Pacemaker, Noninvasive Transcutaneous definition: Electrodes designed to attach to a patient's chest to supply electric pacing stimuli to the heart via a wire from an external pacemaker connected at the other end. These electrodes are typically large surface (80 to 100 square cm), frequently pregelled, disposable pads; the electrode impedance may be high (e.g., more than 500 Ohms) for electrodes used only for pacing or low for electrodes intended for external pacing and defibrillation. They are applied on the thorax surface in the anterior-posterior position (i.e., one electrode over the heart and one directly behind it) or in the anterior-anterior position (i.e., one electrode near the apex of the heart and one on the right chest). Noninvasive transcutaneous pacemaker electrodes can deliver simultaneous stimuli to all chambers of the heart; they are used in combination with external pacemakers to assist in resuscitating patients, to correct arrhythmias, or for temporary pacing during invasive procedures that might induce bradyrhythmias or asystole. Transcutaneous pacemaker electrodes are also used to provide backup pacing during surgical placement of implantable pacemakers.
Electrodes, Pacemaker, Transthoracic definition: Electrodes designed to attach to the external surface of the heart to supply electric pacing stimuli via a wire from an external pacemaker connected at the other end. These electrodes are typically needle- or hook-like devices to facilitate their introduction and/or location. Pacemaker transthoracic electrodes are placed during surgical procedures or in emergency conditions (e.g., cardiac arrest) by pushing a pacing wire into the right ventricle through the chest wall and then through the ventricular wall. Transthoracic pacemaker electrodes are used only for temporary pacing of the heart when it is not possible or desirable to use external, transesophageal, or transvenous pacemaker electrodes.
Electrodes, pH definition: Devices used in the measurement of the acid-base status of a substance.
Iontophoresis Units definition: Devices that introduce soluble ions into the body by means of electric current (i.e., iontophoresis). These units consist of a current generator and electrodes which are connected to the generator by lead wires. The electrodes are immersed in a solution (typically electrolytic) and attached to the skin. A low amplitude, direct current, supplied by the current generator is then conducted between the electrodes, transporting the ions transdermally (a form of electrohydrosis). Iontophoresis units are used for therapeutic drug administration and sweat tests; they are also used to control hyperhydrosis
Leads, Pacemaker, Implantable, Endocardial definition: Leads designed to conduct electrical pacing signals from the pulse-generating unit of an implantable pacemaker to the heart (i.e., endocardial or transvenous leads) and then conduct the myocardial signals back to the unit. These leads typically consist of flexible wires that are completely isolated except at the electrode tip that makes contact with the heart. The leads are positioned in the right atrium or right ventricle through the vascular system (e.g., subclavian vein, superior vena cava). They may be fixed using barbs or screw-type terminals (i.e., active fixation) or through flanges or tinned tips (passive fixation). The other ends of the leads are attached through a connector to the pulse generator that is usually implanted in a surgical pocket in the upper chest near the collarbone. Implantable pacemaker endocardial lead configurations may be unipolar, with one active electrode contact on the heart; or bipolar, with two active contacts; lead size, connector type, and other characteristics of the leads must be compatible with the pulse generator used.
Ion-Selective Electrodes definition: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
ELECTRODE, ION SELECTIVE (NON-SPECIFIED) definition: General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or promoted for a specific medical use is a device that is intended to prepare or examine specimens from the human body and that is labeled or promoted for a specific medical use.
ELECTRODE, ION SPECIFIC, CALCIUM definition: A calcium test system is a device intended to measure the total calcium level in serum. Calcium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid disease, a variety of bone diseases, chronic renal disease and tetany (intermittent muscular contractions or spasms).
ELECTRODE, ION SPECIFIC, POTASSIUM definition: A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor electrolyte balance in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases conditions characterized by low or high blood potassium levels.
Electrodes, Neuromuscular Stimulator, Garment definition: Neuromuscular electrodes designed as garments that cover the entire treatment area. These electrodes consist of conductive cloth (e.g., socks, gloves, sleeves) made of woven fabrics such as nylon or Dacron and metallic threads (e.g., silver); they are connected to steady or pulsed electric stimulators that deliver very small currents, usually in the range of microamperes. Conductive garment electrodes are used in treatments intended to provide mild pain relief, reduce swelling, and/or increase blood circulation.
GONIOMETER WITH ELECTRODES definition: A goniometer is an AC-powered or battery powered device intended to evaluate joint function by measuring and recording range of motion, acceleration, or forces exerted by a joint. The class II (special controls) goniometer uses transcutaneous adhesive electrode lead wires and patient cables to transmit and record patient data.
Electrodes, Neuromuscular Stimulator, Dysphagia definition: Neuromuscular stimulator electrodes designed for use with external stimulators intended for treatment of swallowing difficulties (i.e., dysphagia). These devices are typically dedicated electrodes fixed externally over the nerves and muscles responsible for swallowing; the electrodes are attached through cables to a neuromuscular stimulator, which produces stimuli appropriate for this treatment. Dysphagia neuromuscular stimulator electrodes are used in the treatment of deficiencies in swallowing due to illness (e.g., stroke, neurologic disorders, cancer) and/or aging.