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Epidemiologic Studies definition: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
Epidemiology Research definition: The study of human populations to identify causes of disease and factors determining and influencing the frequency and distribution of disease, injury, and other health related events.
Bias (Epidemiology) definition: Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology) definition: Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Effect Modifiers (Epidemiology) definition: Factors that modify the effect of the putative causal factor(s) under study.
Epidemiological Method definition: Epidemiological methods involve sophisticated statistics and higher mathematics. These methods allow epidemiologists to address issues like non-experimental studies of mechanistic questions in disease etiology, including studies of the impact of the social position of individuals in different social contexts.
Epidemiology definition: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.
epidemiology definition: The study of the incidence, causes, spread, prevention, and control of disease in a population.
Epidemiology definition: The study of the causes, incidence and distribution of disease in the population and its application for prevention or control.
epidemiology definition: Used with human and veterinary diseases for the distribution of disease, factors which cause disease, and the attributes of disease in defined populations; includes incidence, frequency, prevalence, endemic and epidemic outbreaks; also surveys and estimates of morbidity in geographic areas and in specified populations. Used also with geographical headings for the location of epidemiologic aspects of a disease. Excludes mortality for which "mortality" is used.
Molecular Epidemiology definition: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Molecular Epidemiology definition: The application of molecular biology techniques in answering epidemiological questions.
Pharmacoepidemiology definition: The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))
Family Medical History definition: A record of a patient's background regarding health and disease events of blood relatives. A patients family medical history may be important in diagnosing existing conditions. (NCI)
SEER Program definition: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program definition: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From a brochure of the National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
cardiovascular disorder epidemiology definition: study of factors determining and influencing the frequency and distribution of cardiovascular disease and injury, and their causes in a defined human population.
mental health epidemiology definition: study of factors determining and influencing the frequency and distribution of mental diseases and their causes in a defined human population.
neoplasm/cancer epidemiology definition: study of factors determining and influencing the frequency and distribution of neoplasms and cancers and their causes in a defined human population.
nervous system disorder epidemiology definition: study of factors determining and influencing the frequency and distribution of nervous system disorders and injuries and their causes in a defined human population.
substance abuse epidemiology definition: study of factors determining and influencing the frequency, distribution and causes of substance abuse in a defined human population.
epidemiology definition: study of factors determining and influencing the frequency and distribution of disease, injury, and other health related events and their causes in a defined human population.
Surveillance definition: Activities such as detection, measurement, critical analysis, and monitoring intended to identify the status of the individual, family, or community's status in relation to a given condition or phenomenon.
Surveillance definition: The systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data on an ongoing basis.
Genetic Epidemiology definition: The epidemiological evaluation of the role of inherited causes of disease in families and in populations; it aims to detect the inheritance pattern of a particular disease, localize the gene and find a marker associated with disease susceptibility. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are also studied in genetic epidemiology of a disease. In its broad context, genetic epidemiology includes family studies, molecular epidemiologic studies with genetic components, and more traditional cohort and case-control studies with family history components.
Genetic Epidemiology definition: Interdisciplinary clinical, epidemiologic, genetic, and laboratory studies of persons, families, and populations at high risk of cancer. These investigations identify genes and exposures conferring cancer predisposition, and explore the combined effects of predisposition and specific exposures. (from DCEG homepage)
Cancer Epidemiology definition: Cancer epidemiology involves the study of how physical surroundings, occupational hazards and personal habits (smoking, diet and lifestyle) may contribute to the development of cancer.
nutritional epidemiology definition: study of factors determining and influencing the frequency and distribution of disease, injury, and other health related events and their causes as it relates to nutrition in a defined population.
Nutritional Epidemiology definition: Study of the effects of nutrition on disease incidence and outbreaks.
Biochemical Epidemiology definition: Biochemical epidemiology incorporates the collection of biologic specimens in epidemiologic investigations, which can be analyzed by laboratory techniques to gain better insights into specific environmental and genetic determinants of disease, precursor states, and the pathogenic mechanisms.
Breast Cancer Epidemiology definition: Environmental or molecular epidemiology of human breast cancer.
Dental Epidemiology definition: Studies into the link between dental and oral health and systemic disease. Oral health problems have been associated with an increased risk for a variety of systemic diseases including cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, preterm and low birth weight infants, and earlier death. Studies are needed that evaluate physiological pathways that connect oral and systemic conditions.
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics definition: The Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG) is the primary focus within the National Cancer Institute for population based research on environmental and genetics determinants of cancer. Intramural and collaborative interdisciplinary studies are conducted on the distribution, causes, and natural history of cancer, and the means for its prevention. Research areas of special interest include genetic predisposition, lifestyle factors, environmental contaminants, occupational exposures, medications, radiation and infectious agents, as well as statistics and methods development.
Infectious Disease Epidemiology definition: Epidemiology as it relates to infectious diseases.
Interdisciplinary Studies in the Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer definition: Collaborative and interdisciplinary genetic epidemiology investigations designed to identify and evaluate the interactions of genetic and epidemiologic risk factors leading to cancer susceptibility in individuals, families and populations, and factors influencing the rate of increase with age in cancer susceptibility. Emphasis on multi-site, cooperative research by multi- disciplinary teams of investigators wishing to collaborate within the common theme of the genetic epidemiology of cancer. Particular emphasis is placed on encouraging interdisciplinary, population-based research focusing on the etiologic mechanisms underlying the interaction of genetic and epidemiologic risk factors for cancer susceptibility. The effect on cancer susceptibility of age-related changes over the lifespan, and the genetic factors leading to older age at onset of cancer are also of interest.
Molecular Epidemiology of Cancer definition: Epidemiologic research on the environmental and genetic determinants of cancer. (Bypass Budget)
Molecular Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer definition: The objective is to examine the role of genes that regulate the metabolism of environmental carcinogens in prostate cancer etiology. These genes include cytochromes P450 (e.g. CYP1A1, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1) and the mu or theta classes of the glutathione-S-transferases. Three specific aims are proposed to accomplish this objective. In Specific Aim l, the relationship of each of the candidate genes and the occurrence or age of onset of prostate cancer will be examined. The relationship between multiple candidate genes and the occurrence or age of onset of prostate cancer will be examined in Specific Aim 2. The interactions of multiple candidate genes, environments, and exposures will be examined in Specific Aim 3. (from EGP Research Programs, PI: Timothy R. Rebbeck, University of Pennsylvania, R29_ES_08031_03)
Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics Shared Resource definition: The Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics shared resource provides Cancer Center investigators with support in development informatics tools for public health programs, epidemiologic studies, cancer surveillance, interventional trials, and data collection, verification, analysis, and dissemination.
Subcommittee A, Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology definition: Subcommittee of the Board of Scientific Counselors, NCI, which advises the Directors of the Intramural Division of the NCI and the Director and Deputy Director, NCI, on a wide variety of matters concerning scientific program policy and the progress and future direction of research programs of each Division, including the evaluation of performance and productivity of each Division, the evaluation of performance and productivity of staff scientists through periodic site visits to intramural laboratories, and evaluation and advice on the course of each Division's programs.
AIDS Epidemiology definition: Study of the occurrence, distribution, and containment of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Used for the scientific discipline as a whole or for specific epidemiological factors or findings (e.g., AIDS incidence or prevalence statistics). (from PSY94)
Environmental Epidemiology definition: Environmental epidemiology focuses on exposures that are external to the individual, including physical, chemical, biologic, soci-cultural and lifestyle factors that influence the risk of disease.
Epidemiology, Age, Sex definition: The consideration of age and sex as variables in disease incident, transmission, and control.
Epidemiology, Descriptive definition: Population-based studies that describe trends and associations between risk factors, habits, and a specific chronic disease, such as cancer.
Epidemiology, Geographic Location definition: The consideration of geographic location as a variable in disease incident, transmission, and control.
Epidemiology Nursing definition: The application of nursing principles to the study of the patterns of disease or other events across populations.
Epidemiology, Occupation definition: The consideration of occupation as a variable in disease incident, transmission, and control.
Epidemiology, Race/Ethnic Origin definition: The consideration of race and/or ethnic origin as variables in disease incident, transmission, and control.
Epidemiology, Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs definition: The consideration of tobacco, alcohol, or drug use as variables in disease incident, transmission, and control.
Epidemiology and Cancer Control Shared Resource definition: The Epidemiology and Cancer Control Shared Resource provides consultation and support to the Cancer Center investigators conducting research projects related to cancer epidemiology and control, health behavior and quality of life research, and molecular and clinical oncology. Areas of support are, but not limited to: study design, data collection, quality control and analysis, software and measurement error models development, statistical programming, and interpretation and dissemination of results.
Epidemiology of Childhood Malignancies definition: A subdiscipline of epidemiology focusing on determination of causes and incidence of malignancies in children.
Extramural Epidemiology and Genetics Program definition: The Extramural Epidemiology and Genetics Program is the extramural equivalent of the NCI Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics.
Other Epidemiology and Cancer Control Shared Resource definition: Other Epidemiology and Cancer Control Shared Resource provides services not provided by resources listed above.
Tobacco Use Epidemiology definition: Population-based research studies that assess associations between tobacco use, behavioral and biological factors, and cancer. (NCI/TRIP)
Tobacco Use Epidemiology definition: The study of smoking and tobacco use with respect to disease causation
Viral Epidemiology definition: The use of biological techniques to study the spread and control of viral pathogens and viral disease.
epidemiology definition: Épidémiologie.
 
 
deGerman
Epidemiologie definition: [1] die Lehre, die Wissenschaft von den Ursachen, der Ausbreitung, der Bekämpfung von Epidemien (Massenerkrankungen)