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4-Butyrolactone definition: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
gamma hydroxybutyrate definition: hydroxy derivative of butyric acid substituted at the gamma, or 4 position; intermediate in the metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
A gamma-Globin definition: A type of gamma-globin encoded by the A gamma globin gene on CHROMOSOME 11.
Lindane definition: An organochlorine insecticide that has been used as a pediculicide and a scabicide. It has been shown to cause cancer.
lindane definition: gamma isomer of benzene hexachloride, a carcinogenic insecticide more potent than DDT (chlorophenothane); it is used to kill lice and mites, applied topically to the skin.
Lindane definition: The gamma-isomer of benzene hexachloride, a colorless to white colored, synthetic, crystalline solid with a slight musty odor that emits toxic fumes of hydrochloric acid and other chlorinated compounds when heated to decomposition. Lindane is used as an insecticide for hardwood logs, lumber, and crops. Lindane also has topical pediculicide and scabicide activities probably due to its neurotoxic effects. Inhalation exposure to this substance causes severe irritation of the nose and throat, causes anemia, and affects the liver, nervous, cardiovascular, and immune system. Lindane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.
Chlordan definition: A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
chlordane definition: highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide; the EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants.
Chlordane definition: Chlordane is a chlorinated hydrocarbon used as a non-systemic contact insecticide for lawns and crops. Actually a complex mixture of isomers, other chlorinated hydrocarbons, and by-products, chlordane is used in termite and ant control, and as a protective treatment for underground cables. Chlordane may be irritant and toxic by ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption; toxic effects may be cumulative. When heated to decomposition, chlordane emits toxic fumes of carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, chlorine, and phosgene. Chlordane is very persistent in the environment, surviving in soils for more than 20 years. U.S. production of chlordane was stopped in 1976. (NCI04)
Cystathionine gamma-Lyase definition: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC
Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase definition: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.
Gamma Cameras definition: Electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.
scintillation camera definition: electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.
CAMERA, SCINTILLATION (GAMMA) definition: A scintillation (gamma) camera is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a photon radiation detector. This generic type of device may include signal analysis and display equipment, patient and equipment supports, radionuclide anatomical markers, component parts, and accessories.
Cameras, Gamma definition: Cameras designed to obtain a physiologic image of the distribution of gamma-ray-emitting radioisotopes within the human body after the injection or ingestion of a radiopharmaceutical. These cameras include a collimator to reduce scattered rays, a detector (e.g., a sodium iodide crystal, an array of multiple crystals) that converts the gamma rays in pulses of light (scintillation), photomultiplier tubes that convert light to electrical current, electronic circuitry to determine the location and magnitude of scintillation events, and a display. Gamma cameras are mostly used in the detection of cancerous tumors, nuclear cardiology studies, and cerebral blood flow images; they are frequently used in nuclear medicine as part of physiological imaging scanning systems.
Gamma Camera definition: An instrument used in medicine to produce images of internal organs after the injection of a radioactive drug into the body, where the drug releases gamma rays. It is used especially in medical diagnostic scanning. (Encarta Dictionary and Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary)
gamma globulin definition: serum globulins that migrate in the gamma region on electrophoresis; gamma-globulin at one time was used as a synonym for immunoglobulin, since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins; however since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Gamma Globulin definition: A type of globulin in plasma that in electrically charged solutions exhibits slowest colloidal mobility after that of the alpha and beta globulins. All immunoglobulins belong to this group of serum protein.
gamma-Globulins definition: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
gamma-Crystallins definition: A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.
gamma-Globins definition: Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, two non-allelic types of gamma-globin - A gamma and G gamma are encoded in the beta-globin gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. Two gamma-globin chains combine with two ZETA-GLOBIN chains to form the embryonic hemoglobin Portland. Fetal HEMOGLOBIN F is formed from two gamma-globin chains combined with two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains.
gamma-Glutamylcyclotransferase definition: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of pyroglutamate from a gamma-glutamyl-amino acid, also releasing the free amino acid. The enzyme acts on derivatives of glutamate, 2-aminobutyrate, alanine and glycine. The enzyme has been proposed to have a role in a gamma-glutamyl cycle for amino acid transport into cells in the intestines. EC
gamma-Glutamyltransferase definition: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase definition: GGT participates in the transfer of amino acids across the cellular membrane and in glutathione metabolism. High concentrations are found in the liver, bile ducts, and the kidney. A test that measures the amount of GGT in the blood is used to detect diseases of the liver, bile ducts, and kidney; and to differentiate liver or bile duct (hepatobiliary) disorders from bone disease.
Gamma Heavy Chain Disease definition: A clonal disorder characterized by the secretion of a truncated gamma chain. In most cases, it is associated with morphologic changes also seen in lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas, but the clinical course is typically more aggressive than in lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. --2004
interferon gamma definition: activates NK cells, cytotoxic T cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages; stimulates LAK activity; costimulates B cell proliferation; inhibits T cell proliferation; implicated in aberrant expression of MHC II antigens leading to autoimmune disease.
Interferon-gamma definition: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
interferon gamma definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous lymphokine interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) with antineoplastic, immunoregulatory, and antiviral activities. Therapeutic IFN-gamma binds to and activates the cell-surface IFN-gamma receptor, stimulating antibody-dependent cytotoxicity and enhances natural killer cell attachment to tumor cells. This agent also activates caspases, thereby inducing apoptosis in malignant cells. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40469&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40469&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C583" NCI Thesaurus)
Interferon Gamma definition: The gamma or immune IFNs are produced by T lymphocytes in response to mitogens or to antigens to which they are sensitized. They are acid-labile and serologically distinct from alpha- and beta-IFNs. (from OMIM 147570)
Interferon Gamma definition: Interferon gamma (IFNg) is produced by activated T cells and is an important immunoregulatory molecule, particularly in allergic diseases.
gamma-Endorphin definition: An endogenous opioid peptide derived from BETA-LIPOTROPIN of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) system. It is the 17-amino acid sequence of the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN and differs from ALPHA-ENDORPHIN by one amino acid (beta-endorphin 1-16).
Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits definition: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
gamma knife definition: Radiation therapy in which high-energy rays are aimed at a tumor from many angles in a single treatment session.
gamma carboxyglutamate definition: found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications; formed in the liver in the presence of vitamin K by carboxylation of glutamic acid residues.
gamma-Cyclodextrins definition: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Junction Plakoglobin definition: Junction plakoglobin (744 aa, 82 kD) is a cell adhesion process protein that is encoded by the human JUP gene and may have a role in cell adhesion.
gamma Catenin definition: A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.
gamma aminobutyrate definition: amino acid formed in the metabolism of L-glutamic acid; it is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is also found in some extraneural tissue including kidney and pancreatic islet cells.
Counters, Gamma definition: Instruments based on the principle of photoluminescence that are used to measure trace quantities of many diagnostically significant substances that occur in patient samples of serum, urine, or other body fluids.
Stereotactic Systems, Radiosurgical, Gamma definition: Radiosurgical stereotactic systems that use gamma radiation sources.
Chemokines, C definition: Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.
Gamma Chemokine definition: Gamma chemokines are cytokines that lack adjacent cysteine residues and act as chemoattractants for lymphocytes. Most members of the chemokind family have at least four conserved cysteine residues that form two intramolecular disulfide bonds.
AP-2 Gamma definition: A transcription factor that belongs to the AP-2 family and binds viral and cellular enhancers containing the consensus 5'-GCCNNNGGC-3' DNA motif. AP-2 Gamma appears to regulate expression of genes required for ectodermal development. (from SWISS-PROT Q92754, OMIM 601602, and NCI)
AP-2 Gamma definition: Encoded by human TFAP2C Gene (AP-2 Family), 450-aa 49-kD AP-2 Gamma is a sequence-specific dimeric transcription co-activator that binds to 5prime-GCCNNNGGC-3prime DNA sequence in cellular enhancers of many genes involved in retinoic acid-induced neuroectodermal differentiation. The promoter contains no canonical TATA and CCAAT boxes, but has CpG islands and binding sites for OCT1 and AP2. Exon 1 is untranslated. AP-2 Gamma also suppresses expression of the C/EBP-Alpha, MCAM/MUC18, and c-MYC genes. Unlike the N-terminal activation domain, the C-terminal DNA-binding and dimerization domains of AP-2- Gamma are highly conserved with other family members. AP2-B may form homodimers or heterodimers with AP-2 family members. (from LocusLink, Swiss-Prot, OMIM, and NCI)
Small Inducible Cytokine B10 definition: Encoded by Interferon Gamma-induced human CXCL10 Gene (Intercrine Alpha/Chemokine CXC Family), secreted 98-aa 11-kD (precursor) Small Inducible Cytokine B10 is a chemotactic chemokine ligand for receptor CXCR3 that causes stimulation of monocyte, natural killer cell, and T-cell migration, and modulation of adhesion molecule expression. (NCI)
Small Inducible Cytokine B10 definition: A member of the alpha-chemokine family, IP10 is secreted from macrophages, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes in response to IFN-gamma and activates a G protein coupled receptor. IP10 has homology to PFIV, BTG, CTAP-III, and peptides associated with cell proliferation, is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis, inhibits bone marrow colony formation, has anti-tumor activity, is a chemoattractant for monocytes and T-cells, promotes T-cell adhesion to endothelial cells, and probably participates in chronic cell-mediated inflammatory reactions. The IP10 gene is a RAS signaling target. (from OMIM 147310 and NCI)
JUP Gene definition: This gene is involved in cellular adhesion and modulates cadherin interactions.
ADD3 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in cytoskeletal assembly.
ENO2 Gene definition: This gene is involved in cell survival.
PPP3CC Gene definition: This gene is involved in the regulation of signal transduction.
Calcineurin A Gamma definition: Encoded by human PPP3CC Gene (PPP Phosphatase/PP-2B Family), 502-aa 57-kDa Calcineurin A Gamma is a testicular calmodulin-binding catalytic subunit of ubiquitous heterodimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase Calcineurin involved in many biologic activities as a modifier of phosphorylation status. Calcineurin catalytic subunits are derived from alternatively spliced highly conserved PPP3CA, PPP3CB, PPP3CC genes. PPP3CC may be associated with the flagellum and regulate sperm motility. (NCI)
Elongation Factor 1G definition: Encoded by human EEF1G Gene, 437-aa 50-kDa conserved Elongation Factor 1G contains an EEF1G domain and an N-terminal GST domain that may be involved in regulating assembly of multisubunit EF-1 and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complexes. EEF1G is a subunit of heterotrimeric Elongation Factor 1 (containing alpha/beta/gamma or alpha/delta/gamma subunits). Composed of an alpha subunit nucleotide binding domain and a beta/gamma subunit nucleotide exchange complex, Elongation Factor 1 is responsible for delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. EEF1G may anchor complexes to other cellular components. (NCI)
Gamma Distribution definition: A two-parameter family of continuous probability distributions, with a scale parameter theta and a shape parameter k.
Gamma-Enolase definition: Human gamma-enolase protein (433 aa, approximately 47 kD) is encoded by the ENO2 gene. This neuron-specific enzyme catalyzes the formation of pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate during glycolysis. It is involved in both neurotrophy and neuroprotection.
Gamma definition: A unit of magnetic flux density equal to 10(e-9) tesla (one nanotesla) or 10(e-5) oersted, traditionally used in geophysics for measurement of changes in the Earth's magnetic field.
(gamma) definition: The gamma-distribution used for data that is skewed and bounded to the right, i.e. where the maximum of the distribution curve is located near the origin. The g-distribution has a two parameters a and b. The relationship to mean m and variance s2 is m = a b and s2 = a b2.
gamma definition: Gamma.
Palette definition: [1] Malerei, Grafik: ein Brett zum Mischen von Malfarben [2] übertragen: Vielfalt meist hinsichtlich der Auswahlmöglichkeiten [3] Verkehr, Handel, Logistik: ein meist flach gehaltenes, als zeitweilige Ablage, Unterbau oder Unterlage verwendetes Transportmittel und Hilfsmittel bei der Lagerung im Handel, der Logistik oder in Produktionsprozessen [4] Informationsverarbeitung: eine feste oder frei definierbare Zusammenstellung von Farben in der digitalen Bildverarbeitung
Gamma definition: [1] Name des griechischen Buchstaben Γ bzw. γ. [2] veraltete Einheit der magnetischen Flussdichte (Einheitenzeichen γ).
gamma definition: [1] Gamma-
gamma di frequenze definition: [1] der Frequenzbereich
gamma di colori definition: [1] die Farbpalette
gamma di prodotti definition: [1] die Produktpalette
gamma cromatica definition: [1] die Farbskala