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Definition
 
enEnglish
Glutamate Decarboxylase definition: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.
Glutamate Dehydrogenase definition: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.
Glutamate Synthase definition: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC 1.4.1.13.
Glutamates definition: Salts and esters of glutamic acid.
glutamate definition: non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form; the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase definition: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.
Sodium Glutamate definition: One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor. Medically it has been used to reduce blood ammonia levels in ammoniacal azotemia, therapy of hepatic coma, in psychosis, and mental retardation.
Glutamate Dehydrogenase (NADP+) definition: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate, H2O, and NADP+ to 2-oxoglutarate, NH3, and NADPH. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.4.
Glutamate Formimidoyltransferase definition: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE-containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a formyl group from L-GLUTAMATE to N-formimidoyl-L-glutamate and TETRAHYDROFOLATE. This enzyme may also catalyze formyl transfer from 5-formyltetrahydrofolate to L-GLUTAMATE. This enzyme was formerly categorized as EC 2.1.2.6.
Receptors, Glutamate definition: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
glutamate receptor definition: diverse family of receptors sensitive to glutamate, aspartate, and other acidic aminoacids; subtypes include calcium channels (NMDA), sodium-potassium channels (quisqualate), and a phospholipase C activator (ibotenate).
glutamate transporter definition: family of potassium-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for glutamate and aspartate; several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists definition: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Glutamate Dehydrogenase Measurement definition: The determination of the amount of glutamate dehydrogenase present in a sample.
Glutamate Dehydrogenase definition: A measurement of the glutamate dehydrogenase in a biological specimen.
Glutamate definition: A measurement of the glutamate in a biological specimen.
Glutamate Measurement definition: The determination of the amount of glutamate present in a sample.
glutamate binding definition: Interacting selectively with glutamate, the anion of 2-aminopentanedioic acid. [GOC:ai]
glutamate biosynthetic process definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glutamate, the anion of 2-aminopentanedioic acid. [GOC:go_curators]
glutamate anabolism, using glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD(P)+) definition: OBSOLETE. The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glutamate, catalyzed by the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+). [GOC:go_curators]
glutamate anabolism, using glutamate synthase (NADPH) definition: OBSOLETE. The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glutamate, catalyzed by the enzyme glutamate synthase (NADPH). [GOC:go_curators]
glutamate catabolic process definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of glutamate, the anion of 2-aminopentanedioic acid. [GOC:go_curators]
glutamate catabolic process to fumarate, using glutamate synthase (NADPH) definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown into fumarate of glutamate, catalyzed by the enzyme glutamate synthase (NADPH) (EC:1.4.1.13). [GOC:jl]
anaerobic glutamate catabolic process definition: The anaerobic chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of glutamate, yielding energy in the form of ATP. [GOC:jl, http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/]
glutamate metabolic process definition: The chemical reactions and pathways involving glutamate, the anion of 2-aminopentanedioic acid. [GOC:go_curators]
glutamate uptake during transmission of nerve impulse definition: The uptake of L-glutamate by neurons or glial cells. This process leads to inactivation and recycling of neurotransmitters. [ISBN:0123668387]
glutamate secretion definition: The controlled release of glutamate by a cell or group of cells. The glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. [GOC:ef]
L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity definition: Catalysis of the reaction: L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate = oxaloacetate + L-glutamate. [EC:2.6.1.1]
 
 
frFrench
glutamate definition: Variété d'acide aminé.