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Graft vs Host Disease definition: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
graft versus host disease definition: caused by immunologically competent T cells in the graft recognizing and attacking host tissues as foreign; clinical symptoms include skin rashes, diarrhea, and abnormal liver functions.
graft-versus-host disease definition: A reaction of donated bone marrow or peripheral stem cells against a person's tissue.
Graft Versus Host Disease definition: An incompatibility reaction (which may be fatal) in a subject (host) of low immunological competence (deficient lymphoid tissue) who has been the recipient of immunologically competent lymphoid tissue from a donor who lacks at least one antigen possessed by the recipient host; the reaction, or disease, is the result of action of the transplanted cells against those host tissues that possess the antigen not possessed by the donor. Seen most commonly following bone marrow transplantation, acute disease is seen after 5-40 days and chronic disease weeks to months after transplantation, affecting, principally, the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and skin.
hepatitis B virus definition: A virus that causes hepatitis (inflammation of the liver). It is carried and passed to others through blood or sexual contact. Also, infants born to infected mothers may become infected with the virus.
Hepatitis B virus definition: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Hepatitis B Virus definition: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is the prototype of the Hepadnavirus Family. Included in the family are the Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus (WHV) and the Duck Hepatitis B Virus (DHBV) which provide animal models of infection. The HBV genome is a partially double stranded circular DNA. A viral reverse transcriptase is bound to the 5' extremity of the long strand.
Insemination, Artificial, Homologous definition: Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.
Transplantation, Homologous definition: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
homologous transplantation definition: transplantation between individuals of the same species.
Antigens, CD59 definition: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
Oncogene MYC definition: A viral and cellular gene. A proto-oncogene, identified in several avian tumors, encoding a nuclear protein with a leucine zipper motif.
MYC Gene definition: This gene plays a role in cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Cytogenetic aberrations in the gene are involved in cellular transformation and are associated with a variety of hematopoietic tumors, leukemias and lymphomas.
Megakaryocyte-Associated Tyrosine Kinase definition: Expressed in various myeloid cells, brain, and lung by human MATK Gene (CSK Family), 507-aa 56-kDa cytoplasmic Megakaryocyte-Associated Tyrosine Kinase is similar to CSK tyrosine kinase. MATK contains an SH2 and SH3 domain, a catalytic domain, and a unique N-terminus; it lacks myristylation signals, a negative regulatory phosphorylation site, and an autophosphorylation site. Able to phosphorylate and inactivate SRC tyrosine kinases, MATK may regulate SRC activity in brain by phosphorylating the C-terminal negative regulatory tyrosine. Likely to play a significant role in signal transduction in hematopoietic cells, MATK may inhibit T-cell proliferation. (NCI)
Chemokines definition: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
chemokine definition: family of 8-10 KD cytokines; chemoattract leukocytes.
Chemokine definition: Chemokines, short for chemotactic cytokines, are a complex superfamily of small, secreted proteins (6-14 kD) that were originally characterized by their effects on a variety of leukocytes. Usually chemokines act on more than one leukocyte, and a leukocyte can express more than one type of receptor. To date there are at least 40 known chemokines and at least 16 known receptors, and this number seems to increase daily.
Chemokine definition: Chemokines constitute a superfamily of small (8-10 kDa), inducible, secreted, pro-inflammatory cytokines that are involved in a variety of immune and inflammatory responses as well as in viral infection. Chemokines act primarily as chemoattractants and activators of specific types of leukocytes. Some members of this family were initially identified on the basis of their biological activities (e.g., IL-8, GRO), others were discovered using subtractive hybridization (e.g., RANTES) or signal sequence trap (e.g., PBSF/SDF-1)11 cloning strategies. They attract and activate leukocytes and regulate diverse cellular systems and organs ranging from blood vessels to the central nervous system.
Transcription Factor CHOP definition: A CCAAT-enhancer binding protein that is induced by DNA DAMAGE and growth arrest. It serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of other CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins.
BCL2-Antagonist/Killer 1 definition: A BCL2 related protein that induces apoptosis. May cause the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel to open and release cytochrome c into the cytoplasm resulting in caspase activation. (from RefSeq Summary)
bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein definition: A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.
synapsis definition: The cell cycle process whereby the side by side pairing and physical juxtaposition of homologous chromosomes is created at the metaphase plate. [GOC:elh]
Chromosome Pairing definition: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Homologous Recombination definition: Exchange of like DNA sequences on homologous chromosomes by recombination.
Caspase 8 definition: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Caspase-8 definition: A member of the ICE cysteine-protease family. A downstream factor in apoptosis induced by TNFR and FAS
Caspase-8 definition: A protease cascade, involving ICE/CED-3 family aspartate-specific cysteine proteases, is responsible for apoptotic programmed cell death. FLICE is a downstream factor in TNFR- and FAS-induced apoptosis and forms an active protease after pro-enzyme cleavage into two subunits that dimerize to form active enzyme. FLICE contains FADD-like domains, suggesting a possible interaction with FADD. (from OMIM 603599 and NCI)
ETS Homologous Factor definition: ETS Homologous Factor, encoded by the human EHF gene, is a protein that belongs to an ETS transcription factor subfamily characterized by epithelial-specific expression (ESEs). This protein acts as a transcriptional repressor and may be associated with asthma susceptibility. This protein may be involved in epithelial differentiation and carcinogenesis. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. Dot blot analysis detects high levels of EHF expression in salivary gland, prostate, and trachea, with lower levels detected in colon, mammary gland, pancreas, lung, stomach, appendix, fetal kidney, and fetal lung. (From LocusLink and NCI)
Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E-Like 3 definition: Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E-Like 3, encoded by the EIF4EL3 gene, belongs to the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E family. This protein recognizes and binds the 7-methylguanosine-containing mRNA cap during an early step in the initiation of protein synthesis and facilitates ribosome binding by inducing the unwinding of the mRNAs secondary structures. EIF4F is a multi-subunit complex, the composition of which varies with external and internal environmental conditions. It is composed of at least EIF4A, EIF4E and EIF4G. (from SWISS-Prot)
homologous chromosome segregation definition: The cell cycle process whereby replicated homologous chromosomes are organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two sets during the first division of the meiotic cell cycle. Each replicated chromosome, composed of two sister chromatids, aligns at the cell equator, paired with its homologous partner; this pairing off, referred to as synapsis, permits genetic recombination. One homolog (both sister chromatids) of each morphologic type goes into each of the resulting chromosome sets. [GOC:ai, ISBN:0815316194]
resolution of meiotic joint molecules as recombinants definition: The cleavage and rejoining of Holliday junctions formed during meiotic recombination to produce two intact molecules in which genetic material has been exchanged. [GOC:elh, PMID:11733053]
recombinational repair definition: The repair of damaged DNA that involves the exchange, reciprocal or nonreciprocal, of genetic material between the broken DNA molecule and a homologous region of DNA. [GOC:elh]
Recombination Repair definition: Homologous recombination can operate at both double-strand breaks and free ends. The homologous chromosome serves as a template for DNA repair during recombination.
double-strand break repair via homologous recombination definition: The error-free repair of a double-strand break in DNA in which the broken DNA molecule is repaired using homologous sequences. A strand in the broken DNA searches for a homologous region in an intact chromosome to serve as the template for DNA synthesis. The restoration of two intact DNA molecules results in the exchange, reciprocal or nonreciprocal, of genetic material between the intact DNA molecule and the broken DNA molecule. [GOC:elh, PMID:10357855]
CASP8 Gene definition: This gene is involved in apoptosis, immune cell homeostasis, lymphocyte activation and immunoprotection.
EHF Gene definition: This gene is involved in transcriptional repression.
Homologous Gene definition: A gene from one species which corresponds to a gene in another species and that is related via a common ancestral species. These genes retain a similar sequence and function.
MATK Gene definition: This gene is involved in signal transduction within hematopoietic cells. It plays a putative role in the negative regulation of T-cell proliferation.
SMARCA4 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in chromatin remodeling, cell cycle control and regulation of transcription.
Homologous Protein definition: A protein similar in structure and evolutionary origin to a protein in another species.
double-strand break repair via nonhomologous end joining definition: The repair of a double-strand break in DNA in which the two broken ends are rejoined with little or no sequence complementarity. Information at the DNA ends may be lost due to the modification of broken DNA ends. [PMID:10827453]
Nonhomologous DNA End Joining definition: Non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) can only repair double-strand breaks in which two DNA ends are rejoined by DNA ligase at regions of little or no homology to avoid degradation by DNA nucleases or noncomplementary overhanging ends. However, the disadvantage is that it can lead to loss of information from the DNA because of resection of the broken ends. NHEJ is operational throughout the cell cycle but may be more important during G1, prior to DNA replication, or in cells that are no longer cycling.
EIF4E2 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in the initiation and regulation of protein synthesis.
homologous chromosome orientation during meiosis definition: The cell cycle process whereby the sister centromeres of one chromosome attach to microtubules that emanate from the same spindle pole, which ensures that homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes are pulled in opposite directions at anaphase of meiosis I. [PMID:15062096]
CASP8 wt Allele definition: Human CASP8 wild-type allele is located within 2q33-q34 and is approximately 54 kb in length. This allele, which encodes caspase-8 protein, plays a role in apoptosis via the cleavage and activation of caspases 3, 4, 6, 7, 9 and 10. Certain allelic variants of CASP8 are associated with caspase-8 protein deficiency and somatic hepatocellular carcinoma.
EHF wt Allele definition: Human EHF wild-type allele is located in the vicinity of 11p12 and is approximately 40 kb in length. This allele, which encodes ETS homologous factor protein, plays a role in both transcriptional regulation and cell differentiation.
Homologous_Gene definition: This indicates genes from other organisms that are similar in sequence and provide insight to the gene's function.
nonhomologous end joining complex definition: A protein complex that plays a role in DNA double-strand break repair via nonhomologous end joining. Such complexes typically contain a specialized DNA ligase (e.g. Lig4 in eukaryotes) and one or more proteins that bind to DNA ends. [GOC:mah, PMID:17072889, PMID:17938628]
homolog definition: [1] Biologie: von einer gemeinsamen Urform ableitbar