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Aldosterone Antagonists definition: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of aldosterone.
aldosterone inhibitor definition: agent that counteracts or opposes the action of aldosterone.
Androgen Antagonists definition: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.
antiandrogens definition: (an-tee-AN-dro-jens) Drugs used to block the production or interfere with the action of male sex hormones.
androgen inhibitor definition: substance or state which suppresses, prevents, opposes or slows down the actions of the steroid hormone androgen.
Anti-Androgen definition: Substances that inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or biologic effects of androgens by either antagonizing the responsiveness of androgen sensitive tissues or competing with their binding sites.
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors definition: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
ACE inhibitor definition: class of antihypertensive agents which act by inhibiting the proteolytic activation of angiotensin.
ACE Inhibitor definition: A class of agents that target at angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which catalyzes conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. As a result these inhibitors cause vasodilation and mild natriuresis. In addition, ACE inhibitors induce prostaglandin synthesis, which also plays a role in their antihypertensive effects.
inhibitor/antagonist definition: antagonist is any agent which blocks, inhibits, or attenuates the pharmacological action of another agent; can be indexed with other agent or receptor terms to cover specific antagonist types when a specific precoordinated term is not available.
antagonists & inhibitors definition: Used with chemicals, drugs, and endogenous substances to indicate substances or agents which counteract their biological effects by any mechanism.
Anticholesteremic Agents definition: Substances used to lower plasma cholesterol levels.
antihypercholesterolemic agent definition: agents which reduce or control high cholesterol and bring about lower cholesterol levels in both the blood and the liver.
alpha-2-Antiplasmin definition: A member of the serpin superfamily found in plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.
Cholinesterase Inhibitors definition: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
cholinesterase inhibitor definition: any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the action of cholinesterase resulting in the potentiation of the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses; cholinesterase inhibition is associated with a variety of acute symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, stomach cramps, and rapid heart rate.
complement inhibitor definition: serum proteins which act at key sites in the complement sequence to modulate or prevent the progression of the reaction; absence of these factors leads to uncontrolled activation of the complement system with accompanying disease; can apply to endogenous or exogenous substances.
Enzyme Inhibitors definition: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
enzyme inhibitor definition: compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Estrogen Antagonists definition: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
antiestrogen definition: A substance that blocks the activity of estrogens, the family of hormones that promote the development and maintenance of female sex characteristics.
estrogen inhibitor definition: substances or agents which suppress, prevent or oppose the action of estrogen.
Antiestrogen definition: Substances that inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or biologic effects of estrogens by either antagonizing the responsiveness of estrogen sensitive tissues or competing with their binding sites.
Growth Inhibitors definition: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
growth inhibitor definition: endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of animals, plants, fungi, or their tissues, or the growth of microorganisms.
Hormone Antagonists definition: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
hormone inhibitor definition: substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the actions of hormones.
Hormone Antagonist definition: Substances that inhibit or antagonize the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis or biological effect of secreted hormones.
Insulin Antagonists definition: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.
insulin inhibitor definition: any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the action of insulin.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors definition: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
MAO inhibitor definition: chemically heterogeneous group of antidepressant drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines.
Prostaglandin Antagonists definition: Compounds that inhibit the action of prostaglandins.
prostaglandin inhibitor definition: any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the actions of prostaglandins.
Protease Inhibitors definition: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
protease inhibitor definition: any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the actions or biosynthesis of proteases.
protease inhibitors definition: Compounds that interfere with the ability of certain enzymes to break down proteins. Some protease inhibitors can keep a virus from making copies of itself (e.g., AIDS virus protease inhibitors), and some can prevent cancer cells from spreading.
Cupferron definition: A creamy, white crystalline substance. Cupferron is used as an analytical reagent to separate copper, iron and vanadium from other metals. Exposure to this substance causes gastrointestinal disturbances and skin, eye and respiratory-tract irritation. Cupferron is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. (NCI05)
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors definition: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
cyclooxygenase inhibitor definition: compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
antibody inhibitor definition: any substance or state which suppresses, prevents or opposes the actions of infection-fighting protein molecules in blood or secretory fluids known as antibodies.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 Inhibitor B definition: Induced by TGF-beta, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor B interacts with CDK4 and CDK6, and may mediate TGF-Beta induced cell cycle arrest. CDK4IB contains two ankyrin repeats and belongs to the CDKN2/p16(INK4) family. (from SWISS-PROT P42772, OMIM 600431, and NCI)
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A definition: Product of the CDKN2A gene. Also called p16(INK4). A tumor suppressor and a negative regulator of progression through G1. p16(INK4) interacts with CDK4/CDK6, inhibiting their interaction with Cyclin D and the phosphorylation of RB.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 definition: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
decarboxylase inhibitor definition: any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the activity of decarboxylase.
Genes, p16 definition: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
CDKN2A Gene definition: This gene functions as a tumor suppressor and transcriptional regulator.
Aromatase Inhibitors definition: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
Aromatase Inhibitor definition: An agent that blocks the function of the enzyme aromatase with antineoplastic activity. Aromatase inhibitors belong to two classes: Type I steroidal drugs are androgen substrate analogues that bind competitively but irreversibly to the enzyme. Type II nonsteroidal inhibitors fit into the substrate binding site and bind reversibly to the enzyme. Present in many tissues, aromatases are heme-containing enzymes that catalyze the adrenal conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and the peripheral conversion (aromatization) of androgenic precursors to estrogens. (NCI04)
aromatase inhibitor definition: compound that inhibits aromatase and reduces production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
ACTH inhibitor definition: agent that counteracts or opposes the action of the adrenocorticotropin hormone.
aminoacid inhibitor definition: any substance or state which suppresses, prevents, or opposes the action of aminoacids.
angiogenesis inhibitor definition: A substance that may prevent the formation of blood vessels. In anticancer therapy, an angiogenesis inhibitor prevents the growth of blood vessels from surrounding tissue to a solid tumor.
angiogenesis inhibitor definition: agents or endogenous substances that suppress, prevent, or oppose the development of new blood vessels.
Angiogenesis Inhibitors definition: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Angiogenesis Inhibitor definition: An agent or endogenous substance that inhibits the formation and growth of blood or lymphatic vessels. In cancer therapy, angiogenesis inhibitors target blood vessels that supply tumors, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. (NCI04)
calcification inhibitor definition: substance or state which suppresses, prevents or opposes the deposit of calcium salt in organic tissues or calcification.
carcinogenesis inhibitor definition: any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells.
catecholamine inhibitor definition: substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the actions of a catecholamine, a group of chemicals including dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine.
choline inhibitor definition: any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the action of choline.
chymotrypsin inhibitor definition: any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the action of chymotrypsin.
corticosteroid inhibitor definition: any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the actions of corticosteroids.
elastase inhibitor definition: substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the activity of elastase.
esterase inhibitor definition: substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the action of esterase.
lipogenesis inhibitor definition: any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the biosynthesis of lipids in organisms or living cells.
CDKN2B Gene definition: This gene is involved in cell cycle regulation and arrest.
ATPase inhibitor activity definition: Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and orthophosphate. [GOC:jl]
kinase inhibitor activity definition: Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a kinase, an enzyme which catalyzes of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule. [GOC:mah]
cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity definition: Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a cyclin-dependent protein kinase. [GOC:mah]
ACE inhibitor definition: OBSOLETE. Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme, thereby preventing the synthesis of angiotensin II from its precursor, angiotensin I. [GOC:jl]
endopeptidase inhibitor activity definition: Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of an endopeptidase, any enzyme that hydrolyzes nonterminal peptide bonds in polypeptides. [GOC:jl]
kinase inhibitor definition: any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the action of kinase enzymes.
Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors definition: A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.
Apoptosis Inhibitor definition: Encoded by Apoptosis Inhibitor Genes, Apoptosis Inhibitor proteins impede the initiation, progress, or rate of apoptosis.
Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitor definition: Substances that inhibit Dihydrofolate Reductase interfering with the conversion of Dihydrofolate to Tetrahydrofolate, causing inhibition of nucleotide biosynthesis and protein synthesis.
Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitor definition: Substances that inhibit Adenosine Deaminase, an enzyme involved with purine metabolism.
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor definition: Substances that inhibit Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Tyrosine Kinase, involved with signal transduction pathways, and may be useful in treating tumors that over express EGFR.
Differentiation Inhibitor definition: Substances that inhibits differentiation of cells.
Glucosidase Inhibitor definition: A class of agents that reversibly inhibit the membrane-bound intestinal glucosidases (usually alpha glucosidases), enzymes that hydrolyze complex sugars into glucose in the intestines, thereby delaying the metabolism of dietary carbohydrates and reducing postprandial plasma glucose. A glucosidase inhibitor is often structurally similar to glucose. (NCI04)
Glucuronidase Inhibitor definition: A chemopreventive compound that inhibits beta-glucuronidase and prevents hydrolysis of their glucuronides. Examples are calcium D-glucarate and saccharolactone. (NCI)
Amidophosphoribosyltransferase Inhibitor definition: Substances that inhibit Amidophosphoribosyltransferase, an enzyme involved with purine synthesis, interfering with de novo purine synthesis, causing inhibition of DNA synthesis.
Lectin Inhibitor definition: Substances that inhibit lectin, a protein that binds carbohydrate on cell surfaces and causes cell agglutination. (NCI)
3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Inhibitor definition: Substances that inhibit 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved with the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, causing inhibition of steroid hormone synthesis.
TIMP-1 definition: Encoded by human TIMP1 Gene (TIMP Family) TIMP-1 expression in platelets and macrophages is highly inducible by cytokines and hormones. A 207-aa 28-kD secreted glycoprotein growth factor that mediates erythropoiesis, TIMP-1 tightly complexes with and inhibits collagenase as well as connective tissue metalloendoproteases, involved in extracellular matrix degradation and connective tissue remodeling. Activity dependent on disulfide bonds, TIMP1 acts on MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -9, -10, -11, -12, -13 and -16. TIMP family members may possess selective affinities for matrix metalloproteinases. The N-terminus is responsible for MMP inhibition; the C-terminus mediates specific molecular functions. (from LocusLink, Swiss-Prot, OMIM, and NCI)
negative regulation of hydrolase activity definition: Any process that stops or reduces the rate of hydrolase activity, the catalysis of the hydrolysis of various bonds. [GOC:ai]
negative regulation of lyase activity definition: Any process that stops or reduces the rate of lyase activity, the catalysis of the cleavage of C-C, C-O, C-N and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation, or conversely adding a group to a double bond. [GOC:ai]
negative regulation of ligase activity definition: Any process that stops or reduces the rate of ligase activity, the catalysis of the ligation of two substances with concomitant breaking of a diphosphate linkage, usually in a nucleoside triphosphate. [GOC:ai]
Heat Shock Protein Inhibitor definition: Any agent that inhibits functions of heat shock proteins (Hsp). Hsps are a group of homodimeric molecular chaperones that interact with a diverse group of proteins, assisting in their folding and in the elimination of any misfolded or damaged molecules. Although transiently expressed during cell cycle in normal cells, Hsps are constitutively elevated in various types of cancer which raises the apoptosis threshold of these tumor cells and provides protection against cytotoxic agents. Hsp inhibitors may destabilize, and facilitate degradation of proto-oncoproteins leading to reversal of apoptosis regulation and cell death.