dict.md logo
Choose languages of interest
SELECT >>
English
German
Advertisement:
Definition
 
enEnglish
Cytoskeleton definition: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
cytoskeleton definition: network of protein filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm that controls cell shape, maintains intracellular organization, and is involved in cell movement.
cytoskeleton definition: Any of the various filamentous elements that form the internal framework of cells, and typically remain after treatment of the cells with mild detergent to remove membrane constituents and soluble components of the cytoplasm. The term embraces intermediate filaments, microfilaments, microtubules, the microtrabecular lattice, and other structures characterized by a polymeric filamentous nature and long-range order within the cell. The various elements of the cytoskeleton not only serve in the maintenance of cellular shape but also have roles in other cellular functions, including cellular movement, cell division, endocytosis, and movement of organelles. [GOC:mah, ISBN:0198547684, PMID:16959967]
Cytoskeleton definition: The protein scaffolding (the network of filaments microfilaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments, and their associated proteins) that gives shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm and a cell its shape.
Intracellular Fluid definition: The fluid inside CELLS.
Intracellular Membranes definition: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
intracellular membrane definition: membranes of subcellular structures.
Intracellular Membrane definition: A thin pliable sheet separating organelles from the protoplasm.
Signal Transduction definition: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
biological signal transduction definition: any process which helps to produce biological responses to events in the environment or internal milieu; e.g., transduction of light into nerve impulses by the retina, or transduction of hormone binding into cellular events by hormone receptors.
signal transduction definition: The cascade of processes by which a signal interacts with a receptor, causing a change in the level or activity of a second messenger or other downstream target, and ultimately effecting a change in the functioning of the cell. [GOC:go_curators]
Signal Transduction definition: Any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Processes referred to as signal transduction often involve a sequence of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers.
Receptor, erbB-2 definition: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is found to be overexpressed in a significant number of adenocarcinomas. It has extensive homology to and can heterodimerize with the EGF receptor (RECEPTOR, EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR), the erbB-3 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-3) and the erbB-4 receptor. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs during heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family members.
HER-2/neu intracellular domain protein definition: A peptide fragment of the carboxyl terminal and the intracellular domain (ICD) of HER2/neu protein. HER-2/neu protein, a glycoprotein of cell surface receptor, is overexpressed by many adenocarcinomas including breast adenocarcinoma. Based on sensitization theory, co-administration of trastuzumab (anti HER-2/neu monoclonal antibody) and HER2 ICD peptide may result in the potentiation of a HER-2 specific CTL response in breast cancer patients via MHC class I antigen presentation. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38047&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38047&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C2593" NCI Thesaurus)
ERBB2 Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinase definition: The ERBB2 gene encodes a putative tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor EGFR2, p185 HER2/NEU antigen, similar to the EGF receptor. The ERBB2, ERBB3, and ERBB4 genes encode heregulin/neuregulin receptors, members of the EGFR-related type I receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. The encoded proteins form homo- and heterodimers, which complicates assignment of function: ERBB2 homodimers do not bind heregulin, but ERBB2/ERBB3 heterodimers do. Herstatin is a secreted alternative ERBB2 product, of the extracellular domain, that binds to p185ERBB2, disrupts ERBB2 dimers, reduces p185 phosphorylation, and inhibits growth. Human ERBB2 gene is located at 17p12-21. Overexpression of HER-2 correlates with poor prognosis in breast carcinoma.
HER-2/neu Intracellular Domain Protein definition: The cytoplasmic domain or intracellular domain (ICD) of the HER2/neu protein that exhibits tyrosine kinase activity. Based on sensitization theory, co-administration of trastuzumab (anti-HER-2/neu monoclonal antibody) and HER-2/neu intracellular domain protein may result in the potentiation of a HER2/neu-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells overexpressing the HER2/neu protein. HER-2/neu protein, a glycoprotein cell surface receptor that is composed of an extracellular domain (ECD), a transmembrane domain, and an ICD, is overexpressed by many adenocarcinomas including breast adenocarcinoma.
Protoplasm definition: The organized colloidal complex of organic and inorganic substances (as proteins and water) that constitutes the living nucleus, cytoplasm, plastids, and mitochondria of the cell. It is composed mainly of nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and inorganic salts.
intracellular definition: The living contents of a cell; the matter contained within (but not including) the plasma membrane, usually taken to exclude large vacuoles and masses of secretory or ingested material. In eukaryotes it includes the nucleus and cytoplasm. [ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
Protoplasm definition: Cell component which has as its direct parts a maximally connected part of cytoplasm and one or more cell nuclei. Examples: protoplasm of hepatocyte, sarcoplasm, protoplasm of megakaryocyte.
Protoplasm definition: Cell substance which consists of the cytoplasm and cell nucleus; surrounded by the plasma membrane. Examples: muscle cell protoplasm, protoplasm of neuron.
intracellular definition: situated or occurring within a cell or cells.
intracellular definition: Inside a cell.
intracellular canaliculus definition: An apical plasma membrane part that forms a narrow enfolded luminal membrane channel, lined with numerous microvilli, that appears to extend into the cytoplasm of the cell. A specialized network of intracellular canaliculi is a characteristic feature of parietal cells of the gastric mucosa in vertebrates. [GOC:mah, ISBN:0721662544 "Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary", PMID:10700045]
intracellular transport definition: The directed movement of substances within a cell. [GOC:ai]
intracellular transport definition: movement of materials within cells or intracellular compartments.
Intracellular Transport definition: Any subcellular or molecular event, process, or condition involved in translocation of a biological macromolecule from one site or compartment to another, entirely within a cell. (NCI)
Intracellular Space definition: The area within CELLS.
Subcellular Structure definition: Used with tissues and cells (including neoplasms) and microorganisms for microanatomic structures, generally below the size visible by light microscopy.
Chloride Intracellular Channel 4 definition: A p53- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-regulated cytoplasmic and mitochondrial protein that belongs to the CLIC family of intracellular chloride channels. mtCLIC associates with the inner mitochondrial membrane. Dual regulation of mtCLIC by two stress response pathways suggested that this chloride channel protein might contribute to the cellular response to cytotoxic stimuli. DNA damage or overexpression of p53 upregulates mtCLIC and induces apoptosis. Overexpression of mtCLIC by transient transfection reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, releases cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, activates caspases, and induces apoptosis. mtCLIC is additive with Bax in inducing apoptosis without a physical association of the two proteins. Antisense mtCLIC prevents the increase in mtCLIC levels and reduces apoptosis induced by p53 but not apoptosis induced by Bax. (From Mol Cell Biol 2002;22:3610-20)
intracellular accumulation of glycerol definition: The accumulation of glycerol within a cell, for example by increased glycerol biosynthesis combined with decreased permeability of the cell membrane to glycerol, in response to the detection of a hyperosmotic environment. [GOC:jl, PMID:11752666]
intracellular sequestering of iron ion definition: The process of binding or confining iron ions in an intracellular area such that they are separated from other components of a biological system. [GOC:ai]
intracellular copper ion transport definition: The directed movement of copper (Cu) ions within a cell. [GOC:ai]
induction of apoptosis by intracellular signals definition: Any process induced by intracellular signals that directly activates any of the steps required for cell death by apoptosis. [GOC:ai]
Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor Intracellular Binding Protein definition: Acidic fibroblast growth factor intracellular binding protein (364 aa, 42 kD) is a cell communication process protein that is encoded by the human FIBP gene and has a role in signal transduction and B-cell activation.
intracellular copper transporter definition: OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete). [GOC:ai]
cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport definition: The directed movement of substances along cytoskeletal elements such as microfilaments or microtubules within a cell. [GOC:mah]
CLIC4 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in the regulation of several cellular processes, including cellular transport.
Intracellular Communication Induction definition: Intracellular Communication Induction involves initiation of activities that propagate information from one location to another within a cell.
Intracellular Communication Inhibition definition: Intracellular Communication Inhibition involves interference with, or restraint of, activities that propagate information from one location to another within a cell.
intracellular distribution of mitochondria definition: Any process that establish the spatial arrangement of mitochondria within the cell. [GOC:jic]
intracellular organelle definition: Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, occurring within the cell. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, vesicles, ribosomes and the cytoskeleton. Excludes the plasma membrane. [GOC:go_curators]
Intracellular Calcium-Sensing Proteins definition: Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins that bind to CALCIUM. They undergo allosteric changes when bound to CALCIUM that affects their interaction with other signal-transducing molecules. They differ from CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTORS which sense extracellular calcium levels.
intracellular pH elevation definition: Any process that increases the internal pH of a cell, measured by the concentration of the hydrogen ion. [GOC:ai]
intracellular lipid transport definition: The directed movement of lipids within cells. [GOC:mah]
intracellular cholesterol transport definition: The directed movement of cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3-beta-ol, within cells. [GOC:mah]
intracellular defense response definition: A physiological defense response which occurs intracellularly. [GOC:add]
intracellular region of host definition: That space within the plasma membrane of a host cell. [GOC:cc]
intracellular part definition: Any constituent part of the living contents of a cell; the matter contained within (but not including) the plasma membrane, usually taken to exclude large vacuoles and masses of secretory or ingested material. In eukaryotes it includes the nucleus and cytoplasm. [GOC:jl]
host intracellular part definition: Any constituent part of the living contents of a host cell; the matter contained within (but not including) the plasma membrane, usually taken to exclude large vacuoles and masses of secretory or ingested material. In eukaryotes it includes the nucleus and cytoplasm. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:pamgo_curators]
host intracellular organelle definition: Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, occurring within the host cell. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, vesicles, ribosomes and the cytoskeleton. Excludes the plasma membrane. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:pamgo_curators]
intracellular immature spore definition: A cell or part of the cell that constitutes an early developmental stage of a spore, a small reproductive body that is highly resistant to desiccation and heat and is capable of growing into a new organism, produced especially by certain bacteria, fungi, algae, and nonflowering plants. [GOC:jl, ISBN:0395825172]
intracellular ferritin complex definition: A ferritin complex located in the cell. Intracellular ferritin complexes contain 24 subunits, in a mixture of L (light) chains and H (heavy) chains. [GOC:jl, GOC:mah, PMID:19154717]