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Definition
 
enEnglish
Behavior Therapy definition: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
behavior modification definition: specific techniques which use classical or operant conditioning, or perceptual learning, to change behavior, especially to extinguish socially undesirable behavior, attitudes, or phobias.
behavior therapy definition: therapeutic approach in which the focus is on the patient's observable behavior, rather than on conflicts and unconscious processes presumed to underlie his maladaptive behavior; accomplished through systematic manipulation of the environmental and behavioral variables related to the specific behavior to be modified; operant conditioning, systematic desensitization, token economy, aversive control, flooding, and implosion are examples of techniques that may be used in behavior therapy.
behavior modification definition: Activities that change habits, conduct, or patterns of action.
Behavioral Intervention definition: The use of operant conditioning, including rewards and punishments, in helping a person create an atmosphere where he or she does not contribute to painful stimuli.
Cognitive Therapy definition: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
cognitive behavior therapy definition: involves identifying and changing specific cognitive processes as they relate to problems of emotions and behavior; based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior; directed toward learning through practice of specific skills which have direct relevance to the present problem.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy definition: A type of psychotherapy utilized to treat different forms of mental disorders.The treatment involves the identification of unhelpful or destructive patterns of thinking and behaviors and the subsequent replacement with behaviors that are beneficial and constructive.
DNA Modification Methylases definition: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They are responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern, on either adenine or cytosine residues, in a specific short base sequence in the host cell's own DNA. This methylated sequence will occur many times in the host-cell DNA and remain intact for the lifetime of the cell. Any DNA from another species which gains entry into a living cell and lacks the characteristic methylation pattern will be recognized by the restriction endonucleases of similar specificity and destroyed by cleavage. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms.
DNA Methyltransferase definition: DNA Methyltransferases are a subclass of transferase enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from a donor compound to DNA.
Protein Processing, Post-Translational definition: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
posttranslational modification definition: normal biosynthetic reactions occurring after polypeptide chain assembly at the ribosome; for experimental modifications, use PROTEIN ENGINEERING or other term.
protein processing definition: The posttranslational modification of a protein, particularly secretory proteins and proteins targeted for membranes or specific cellular locations. [GOC:jl, http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk]
post-translational protein modification definition: The covalent alteration of one or more amino acids occurring in a protein after the protein has been completely translated and released from the ribosome. [GOC:jsg]
Post-Translational Modification definition: The enzymatic processing of a polypeptide chain after translation from messenger RNA and after peptide bond formation has occurred. Examples include glycosylation, acylation, limited proteolysis, phosphorylation, isoprenylation.
Mutagenesis, Site-Directed definition: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
site directed mutagenesis definition: mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by in vitro induction directed at a specific site in a DNA molecule; the most common method involves use of a chemically synthesized oligonucleotide mutant which can hybridize with the DNA target molecule; the resulting mismatch-carrying DNA duplex may then be transfected into a bacterial cell line and the mutant strands recovered.
Targeted Mutation definition: A mutation created in a gene at a specific location.
Site-Directed Mutagenesis definition: Any of several methods used to create alterations in a gene at a specific location.
Change definition: The act of alteration or modification; changed or altered in form or character.
DNA topological change definition: The process by which a transformation is induced in the topological structure of a double-stranded DNA helix, resulting in a change in linking number. [ISBN:071673706X, ISBN:0935702490]
actin modification definition: Covalent modification of an actin molecule. [GOC:mah]
cell wall modification definition: The series of events leading to chemical and structural alterations of an existing cell wall that can result in loosening, increased extensibility or disassembly. [GOC:jl]
chromatin modification definition: The alteration of DNA or protein in chromatin, which may result in changing the chromatin structure. [GOC:mah]
covalent chromatin modification definition: The alteration of DNA or protein in chromatin by the covalent addition or removal of chemical groups. [GOC:mah]
histone modification definition: The covalent alteration of one or more amino acid residues within a histone protein. [GOC:krc]
ecdysone modification definition: OBSOLETE. The covalent or conformational alteration of ecdysone, resulting in a change in its properties. [GOC:jl]
charged-tRNA amino acid modification definition: The covalent alteration of an amino acid charged on a tRNA before it is incorporated into a protein, as in N-formylmethionine, selenocysteine or pyrrolysine. [GOC:jsg]
Pre-Translational Amino Acid Modification definition: The enzymatically catalyzed modifications of the amino acid component of an AMINO ACYL TRNA. This includes modifications such as the conversion of the seryl-tRNA to selenocysteinyl-tRNA which is eventually used during GENETIC TRANSLATION in the biosynthesis of selenoproteins.
lipid modification definition: The covalent alteration of one or more fatty acids in a lipid, resulting in a change in the properties of the lipid. [GOC:mah]
DNA modification definition: The covalent alteration of one or more nucleotide sites in DNA, resulting in a change in its properties. [GOC:jl, GOC:ma]
DNA Modification Process definition: Biological processes that involve adding/removing chemical moieties to/from DNA, including methylation, phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, etc. occurring either in vivo or in vitro.
mRNA modification definition: The covalent alteration of one or more nucleotides within an mRNA molecule to produce an mRNA molecule with a sequence that differs from that coded genetically. [GOC:curators]
RNA modification definition: The covalent alteration of one or more nucleotides within an RNA molecule to produce an RNA molecule with a sequence that differs from that coded genetically. [GOC:go_curators, ISBN:1555811337 "Modification and Editing of RNA"]
rRNA modification definition: The covalent alteration of one or more nucleotides within an rRNA molecule to produce an rRNA molecule with a sequence that differs from that coded genetically. [GOC:curators]
snRNA modification definition: The covalent alteration of one or more nucleotides within snRNA, resulting in a change in the properties of the snRNA. [GOC:jl]
tRNA modification definition: The covalent alteration of one or more nucleotides within a tRNA molecule to produce a tRNA molecule with a sequence that differs from that coded genetically. [GOC:curators]
lipoprotein modification definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the covalent alteration of one or more amino acid or lipid residues occurring in a lipoprotein, any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids. [GOC:mah]
co-translational protein modification definition: The covalent alteration of one or more amino acids occurring in a protein before the protein has been completely translated and released from the ribosome. [GOC:jsg]
Co-Translational Protein Modification definition: The enzymatically catalyzed modifications of nascent PEPTIDES during the process of GENETIC TRANSLATION, including the modification of the individual AMINO ACIDS and cleavage or crosslinking of peptide chains.
Body Modification, Non-Therapeutic definition: The wounding of the body or body parts by branding, cutting, piercing (BODY PIERCING), or TATTOOING as a cultural practice or expression of creativity or identity.
Organism Modification definition: Techniques used for deliberately altering the genetic material of an organism in order to make them capable of making new substances or performing new or different functions.
modification definition: Respond with exceptions, completions and modifications or revisions done before completion
peptide modification definition: The covalent alteration of one or more amino acid residues within a peptide, resulting in a change in the properties of that peptide. [GOC:mah]
biopolymer modification definition: The covalent alteration of one or more monomeric units in a polypeptide, polynucleotide, polysaccharide, or other biological polymer, resulting in a change in its properties. [GOC:go_curators]
Dose Modification definition: Change, alteration, or adjustment of a dose specified in a treatment plan or/and administered to a patient.
 
 
hyArmenian
պարագա definition: [1] Armenische Grammatik: Adverbialbestimmung, Umstandsbestimmung f
 
deGerman
Abwandlung definition: [1] leichte Veränderung, kleine Abänderung [2] Linguistik: Flexion, grammatikalische Biegung
Änderung definition: [1] Wechsel eines Zustandes; etwas wird anders; etwas verändert sich
Modifikation definition: [1] Änderung
 
frFrench
transformation definition: Action de transformer.
transformation definition: Changement d'une forme en une autre.
transformation definition: Opération que l'on fait subir à une équation, à une formule, à une expression algébrique, sans en changer la valeur.
transformation definition: Réduction d'une figure ou d'un solide en un autre de même surface ou de même volume.
transformation definition: Au rugby, à la suite d'un essai, action de jeu consistant pour un joueur à frapper avec le pied le ballon fixe placé à terre afin de le propulser en l'air dans l'intention de le faire passer entre les poteaux au dessus de la barre transversale.
modification definition: Changement apporté.
modification definition: Changement qui s’opère dans la manière d’être d’une substance.
modification definition: Changement qui s’opère ou qu’on opère dans une chose quelconque.
amendement definition: Action d’amender et résultat de cette action.
amendement definition: Fait d'amender ou de s'amender dans le sens où apparaît une résipiscence, une amélioration, un mieux.
amendement definition: Diminution de l'intensité des symptômes d'une maladie.
amendement definition: Opération visant à améliorer les propriétés physiques d'un sol.
amendement definition: Modification faite à un projet de loi, d’arrêté, pour changer quelqu’une de ses dispositions, ou seulement pour lui donner plus de clarté, plus de précision.
amendement definition: Modification d'un jugement.