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Definition
 
enEnglish
Antigenic Modulation definition: Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one method in which some tumors escape detection by the immune system. Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies.
immunoregulation definition: various processes by which antibodies may regulate immune responses; at a simple level, secreted antibody neutralizes the antigen with which it reacts thus preventing further antigenic stimulation of the antibody producing clone; at a more complex level, anti-idiotype antibodies can be shown to develop against the first antibodies in some cases and perhaps further anti-idiotype antibodies against them; this is the major concept of the immunological network theory.
Immunoregulation definition: Physiologic control of immune function. Includes all levels of regulation from gene expression mechanisms, through cell-cell interactions, to organism-wide responses.
modulation of host translation by virus definition: Any process by which a virus modulates the frequency, rate or extent of translation of host mRNA. [ISBN:0781718325]
modulation by virus of host transcription definition: The modulation by viral gene products of host RNA polymerase II facilitated transcription. [ISBN:0781718325]
regulation of mitotic cell cycle, embryonic definition: Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of replication and segregation of genetic material in the embryo. [GOC:dph, GOC:go_curators, GOC:tb]
regulation of mitotic cell cycle definition: Any process that modulates the rate or extent of progress through the mitotic cell cycle. [GOC:dph, GOC:go_curators, GOC:tb]
regulation of cell cycle definition: Any process that modulates the rate or extent of progression through the cell cycle. [GOC:ai, GOC:dph, GOC:tb]
Cell Cycle Regulation definition: Control of the rate or manner of the periodic biochemical and structural events occurring during proliferation of cells; the cycle is divided into periods called: G0, Gap1 (G1), synthesis (S1), Gap2 (G2), and mitosis (M). The period runs from one division to the next.
Eicosanoid Modulation definition: Eicosanoid Modulation involves a change in the quality of the existing state of activity of hormone-like endogenous unsaturated and oxygenated fatty acid derivatives of arachidonic acid (eicosanoids) that act near the site of synthesis and have a specific regulatory effect on the activity of target cells in host defense reactions, immediate hypersensitivity, and inflammation. Eicosanoids include prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid compounds.
Interferon Signaling Modulation Pathway definition: Signaling by interferon-gamma stimulates anti-viral responses and tumor suppression through the heterodimeric interferon-gamma receptor. Signaling is initiated by binding of interferon-gamma to its receptor, activating the receptor-associated JAK2 tyrosine kinase to phosphorylate STAT transcription factors that activate interferon responsive genes. Molecular chaperones that modulate or alter protein folding interact with different components of the interferon signaling pathway. One chaperone that modulates interferon signaling is hTid-1, a member of the DnaJ family of chaperones and a co-chaperone for the heat shock protein Hsp70, another molecular chaperone. hTid-1 was found in a two-hybrid screen to bind to JAK2 and also to interact with the interferon-gamma receptor. In addition, hTid-1 and JAK2 also interact with Hsp70. Overexpression of hTid-1 represses transcriptional activation by interferon-gamma and Hsp70 dissociates from these proteins when interferon is added to cells, suggesting that Hsp70 holds Jak2 in an inactive conformation prior to ligand activation, and is released in the presence of agonist to allow the activation of Jak-2 and downstream pathways. hTid-1 and Hsp-70 interact with other signaling proteins as well. One of these is Tax, a protein encoded by the HTLV-1 virus that binds to hTid-1. hTid-1 also represses NF-kB activation by blocking the phosphorylation and inactivation of I-kappaB by the IkappaB kinase beta. Hsp70 plays a significant role in protein unfolding for entry into mitochondria and also interacts with tumor suppressor gene products to produce their anti-proliferative activity. One of the actions of interferon is to induce apoptosis of infected target cells, in part through a mitochondrial dependent mechanism. An interaction between interferon signaling and Hsp70 may alter this mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, perhaps playing a role in interferon-mediated apoptosis of infected or transformed cells. The HTLV-1 Tax protein that interacts with Hsp70 blocks mitochondrial induced apoptosis, providing a protection against interferon-mediated cellular defenses. (BioCarta)
regulation of meiotic cell cycle definition: Any process that modulates the rate or extent of progression through the meiotic cell cycle. [GOC:ai, GOC:dph, GOC:tb]
Modulation definition: A change in the kinetics of an enzyme or metabolic pathway.
modulation by symbiont of ethylene levels in host definition: The alteration by an organism of the levels of ethylene in the host organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by symbiont of host transcription definition: Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of host transcription, the synthesis of either RNA on a template of DNA or DNA on a template of RNA. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by symbiont of host defense response definition: Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the defense response of its host, the response mounted by the host in response to the presence of the organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by symbiont of host inflammatory response definition: Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the inflammatory response of the host organism; the inflammatory response is the immediate defensive reaction (by vertebrate tissue) to infection or injury caused by chemical or physical agents. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by symbiont of host intracellular transport definition: Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of substances within the cell or cells of the host organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by symbiont of host programmed cell death definition: Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of programmed cell death in the host organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by symbiont of host molecular function definition: The process by which an organism effects a change in the function of a host protein via a direct interaction. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:dph, GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06, GOC:tb]
modulation by symbiont of host apoptosis definition: Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of programmed cell death in the host, where programmed cell death proceeds by apoptosis. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by symbiont of host phytoalexin production definition: Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of production of phytoalexins as part of the defense response of the host organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by symbiont of host innate immunity definition: Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the innate immune response of the host organism; the innate immune response is the host's first line of defense against infection. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by host of symbiont defense response definition: Any process by which an organism activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the resistance gene-dependent defense response of the symbiont. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by symbiont of host phagocytosis definition: Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of phagocytosis, the engulfing by phagocytes of external particulate material, in the host organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by symbiont of entry into host definition: Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent to which it enters into the host organism, where the two organisms are in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by host of symbiont RNA levels definition: The alteration by an organism of the levels of RNA in a symbiont organism. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by host of symbiont phagocytosis definition: Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of phagocytosis, the engulfing by phagocytes of external particulate material, in the symbiont organism. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by host of symbiont transcription definition: Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of symbiont transcription, the synthesis of either RNA on a template of DNA or DNA on a template of RNA. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by symbiont of host immune response definition: Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the immune response of the host organism; the immune response is any immune system process that functions in the calibrated response of an organism to a potential internal or invasive threat. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by symbiont of host response to cold definition: Any process by which an organism modulates a change in state or activity of a host cell or organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a cold stimulus, a temperature stimulus below the optimal temperature for that organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:pamgo_curators]
modulation by symbiont of host response to heat definition: Any process by which an organism modulates a change in state or activity of a host cell or organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a heat stimulus, a temperature stimulus above the optimal temperature for that organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:pamgo_curators]
modulation by symbiont of host response to water definition: Any process by which an organism modulates a change in state or activity of a host cell or organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a water stimulus. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:pamgo_curators]
modulation by symbiont of host response to pH definition: Any process by which an organism modulates a change in state or activity of a host cell or organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a pH stimulus. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:pamgo_curators]
modulation by organism of symbiont apoptotic programmed cell death definition: OBSOLETE. Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of programmed cell death in the symbiont, where programmed cell death proceeds by apoptosis. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo]
modulation by organism of ethylene levels in symbiont definition: OBSOLETE. The alteration by an organism of the levels of ethylene in the symbiont organism. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo]
modulation by organism of symbiont inflammatory response definition: OBSOLETE. Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the inflammatory response of a symbiont organism; the inflammatory response is the immediate defensive reaction (by vertebrate tissue) to infection or injury caused by chemical or physical agents. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo]
modulation of symbiont innate immune response definition: OBSOLETE. Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the innate immune response of the symbiont organism; the innate immune response is the symbiont's first line of defense against infection. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo]
modulation of symbiont intracellular trafficking definition: OBSOLETE. Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of substances within the cell or cells of the symbiont organism. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo]
modulation by organism of symbiont phytoalexin production definition: OBSOLETE. Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of production of phytoalexins as part of the defense response of the symbiont organism. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo]
modulation of symbiont HR definition: OBSOLETE. Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of programmed cell death in a symbiont organism. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo]
modulation by organism of symbiont immune response definition: OBSOLETE. Any process by which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the immune response of the symbiont organism; the immune response is any immune system process that functions in the calibrated response of an organism to a potential internal or invasive threat. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo]
modulation by symbiont of host catalytic activity definition: The process by which an organism effects a change in host enzyme activity. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06, GOC:tb]
modulation by symbiont of host protease activity definition: The process by which an organism effects a change in host protease activity, the catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in a protein. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by host of symbiont catalytic activity definition: The process by which an organism effects a change in symbiont enzyme activity. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06, GOC:tb]
modulation by host of symbiont protease activity definition: The process by which an organism effects a change in symbiont protease activity, the catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in a protein. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
modulation by symbiont of host adenylate cyclase activity definition: Any process by which the symbiont modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the host adenylate cyclase activity, which involves catalysis of the reaction: ATP = 3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:pamgo_curators]
modulation of spore encystment on host definition: Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of spore encystment on host. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:pamgo_curators]
modulation of zoospore encystment on host definition: Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of zoospore encystment on host. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:pamgo_curators]
modulation by symbiont of host protein levels definition: The alteration by an organism of protein levels in the host organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:pamgo_curators]
modulation by host of viral transcription definition: Any process by which a host organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of viral transcription, the synthesis of either RNA on a template of DNA or DNA on a template of RNA. [GOC:jl]
modulation by symbiont of host endocrine process definition: The alteration by a symbiont organism of the functioning of a endocrine process, any of the hormonal, neural, and secretory processes that release products into the blood or lymph, in the host organism. [MITRE:tk]
modulation by symbiont of host excretion definition: The alteration by a symbiont organism of the functioning of excretion, the elimination by the host organism of the waste products that arise as a result of metabolic activity. [MITRE:tk]
modulation by symbiont of host cellular process definition: Any process by which a symbiont organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a cellular process, any process that is carried out at the cellular level, but not necessarily restricted to a single cell, in its host organism. [MITRE:tk]
modulation by symbiont of host cell cycle definition: The process by which a symbiont organism effects a change in its host's cell cycle through direct interactions with the host cell macromolecular machinery. [MITRE:tk]
modulation by symbiont of host translation definition: The process in which a symbiont organism effects a change in translation, the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a protein, in its host organism. [MITRE:tk]
modulation by symbiont of host neurotransmitter secretion definition: Any process by which a symbiont organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of a neurotransmitter from a cell or group of cells in its host organism. [MITRE:tk]
 
 
deGerman
Amplitudenmodulation definition: [1] Modulationsart, bei der die Amplitude der Trägerschwingung vom Nutzsignal verändert wird.
AM definition: [1] Amplitudenmodulation [2] Allgemeinmedizin
Modulation definition: [1] Musik: Wechsel von einer Tonart in eine andere [2] Technik: Ergänzung eines Trägersignals durch das Signal, das übertragen werden soll
Modulation definition: Modulation.
 
frFrench
modulation definition: Inflexion de la voix.
modulation definition: Passage d’un ton, d’un mode à un autre.
modulation definition: Action de moduler le chant ou l’harmonie, et de l’effet qui en résulte.
modulation definition: Conversion des données numériques en signaux analogiques.