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Biological Markers definition: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
biomarker definition: a biological, physiological, behavioral, or molecular indicator of a process, disease, or system; e.g., fish mortality and pollution, behavioral changes and alcoholism, neuroendocrine system changes and aging.
marker definition: A diagnostic indication that disease may develop.
Biomarker definition: A characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. (From: FDA Guidance for Industry: Pharmacogenomic Data Submissions.)
Biomarker definition: A variation in cellular or biochemical components or processes, structures, or functions that is objectively measurable in a biological system and that characterizes normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, an organism's state of health or disease, likelihood of developing a disease, prognosis, or response to a particular therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers include but not limited to such phenotypic parameters as specific enzyme or hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype, presence or absence of biological substances.
Cloning, Molecular definition: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
molecular cloning definition: reproduction of artificial, foreign, or hybrid nucleic acids by incorporation into living cells (usually bacteria), cell-free biological systems, or artificial replicative systems such as PCR.
genetic disorder definition: general term for any disorder caused by a genetic mechanism, comprising chromosome aberrations or anomalies, mendelian or monogenic or single-gene disorders, and multifactorial disorders; note that all genetic disorders are not treed under this term; see RTs for others; in addition, many disorders not treed here or under RTs may have a genetic component.
Genetic Disorder definition: Genetic Diseases are diseases in which inherited genes predispose to increased risk. The genetic disorders associated with cancer often result from an alteration or mutation in a single gene. The diseases range from rare dominant cancer family syndrome to familial tendencies in which low-penetrance genes may interact with other genes or environmental factors to induce cancer. Research may involve clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory studies of persons, families, and populations at high risk of these disorders.
Hereditary Diseases definition: Diseases caused by genetic mutations that are inherited from a parent's genome.
Models, Molecular definition: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Molecular Model definition: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Molecular Biology definition: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
molecular biology definition: study of biological processes at the molecular level, including membrane biochemistry, cytoskeleton biochemistry, and structural biology in addition to molecular genetics (see NTs and RTs).
Molecular Biology definition: The study of biology at a molecular level. It chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated. The field overlaps with other areas of biology, particularly genetics and biochemistry.
Molecular Conformation definition: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
conformation definition: any of the spatial arrangements of a molecule that can be obtained by rotation of the atoms about a single bond.
Conformation definition: The three-dimensional arrangement of something in space. Often refers to the arrangement of the side groups on a molecule which can freely rotate into different positions without breaking any bonds.
Molecular Weight definition: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
molecular weight definition: sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in a molecule.
Molecular Weight definition: The sum of the relative atomic masses of the constituent atoms of a molecule.
molecular mass definition: The sum of the atomic masses of all atoms in a molecule, based on a scale in which the atomic masses of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are 1, 12, 14, and 16, respectively. For example, the molecular mass of water, which has two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen, is 18 (i.e., 2 + 16).
Nucleic Acid Hybridization definition: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
nucleic acid hybridization definition: "zipping" reaction between complementary DNA or RNA single strands to form a duplex (double stranded) molecule; basis of many techniques for assaying nucleic acid sequence complementarity.
Nucleic Acid Hybridization definition: Laboratory procedure in which single stranded nucleic acids are allowed to interact so that complexes, or hybrids, are formed by molecules with sufficiently similar, complementary sequences. By this means the degree of sequence identity can be assessed and specific sequences detected. (From Biology-online)
molecular genetics definition: study of genetics at the molecular level, including nucleic acid structure and replication, transcription (DNA to RNA), reverse transcription (RNA to DNA), translation (RNA to protein), and the cellular and chemical factors which regulate these processes.
Molecular Genetics definition: The study of the flow and regulation of genetic information between DNA, RNA, and protein molecules.
Sequence Homology definition: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Molecular Epidemiology definition: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Molecular Epidemiology definition: The application of molecular biology techniques in answering epidemiological questions.
Molecular Mimicry definition: The process in which structural properties of an introduced molecule imitate or simulate molecules of the host. Direct mimicry of a molecule enables a viral protein to bind directly to a normal substrate as a substitute for the homologous normal ligand. Immunologic molecular mimicry generally refers to what can be described as antigenic mimicry and is defined by the properties of ANTIBODIES raised against various facets of EPITOPES on the viral protein. (From Immunology Letters 1991 May;28(2):91-9)
Molecular Chaperones definition: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
molecular chaperone definition: diverse family of prokaryotic and eukaryotic intracellular proteins involved in the assembly and transmembrane translocation of other proteins; seem to function by stabilizing partially unfolded states; includes certain heat shock proteins.
Chaperone definition: Cytoplasmic proteins of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes that bind to nascent or unfolded polypeptides and ensure correct folding or transport. Chaperone proteins do not covalently bind to their targets and do not form part of the finished product. Heat-shock proteins are an important sub set of chaperones. Three major families are recognised, the chaperonins (groEL and hsp60), the hsp70 family and the hsp90 family. Outside these major families are other proteins with similar functions including nucleoplasmin, secB and T-cell receptor associated protein.
Molecular Abnormality definition: Abnormalities that occur in human cells and tissues and models of human cancer.
Evolution, Molecular definition: Evolution at the molecular level of DNA sequences and proteins. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
molecular asymmetry definition: lack of symmetry in the special arrangements of the atoms and radicals within the molecule or crystal.
molecular dynamics definition: standard computational technique used following the temporal evolution of a system of particles, interacting with each other by means of a certain law; various phenomena can be studied such as phase transitions, liquid structure, defects in solids (vacancies, dislocations, grain boundaries, etc), amorphous materials, surfaces, clusters; the interplay between structure and dynamics of molecules and how these influence function.
Molecular Dynamics definition: The science of simulating the motions of a system of particles. (Karplus and Petsko)
molecular film definition: a thin layer or coating composed of the smallest possible quantity of a di-, tri-, or polyatomic substance that retains the chemical properties of the substance.
molecular assembly/self assembly definition: spontaneous or induced formation of molecules into well defined, stable structures.
DNA Shuffling definition: The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.
Computers, Molecular definition: Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.
molecular_function definition: Elemental activities, such as catalysis or binding, describing the actions of a gene product at the molecular level. A given gene product may exhibit one or more molecular functions. [GOC:go_curators]
binding definition: The selective, often stoichiometric, interaction of a molecule with one or more specific sites on another molecule. [GOC:ceb, GOC:mah, ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
Molecular Interaction definition: Involves temporary, non-covalent binding of two or more molecules as a result of intermolecular physical forces and often involves spatial complementarity between the interacting objects.
Molecular Analysis definition: A laboratory procedure that involves the study of tissues, cells, and fluids using DNA/RNA analysis techniques for the identification of characteristics and abnormalities at the molecular level.
Molecular Carcinogenesis definition: Research that focuses on the genetics and mechanisms of cell transformation; the role of oxygen radicals in the carcinogenesis process; and identification and properties of tumor promoters and mechanisms of tumor promotion.
Molecular Cytogenetics definition: Studies of chromosome biology and behavior at the molecular level.
Molecular Diagnosis definition: The use of molecular tools and techniques, especially gene and protein expression profiles, to diagnose disease.
Molecular Fingerprint of Tumor definition: All cell types, depending on their functions, have unique, identifiable "signatures" - special characteristics such as which genes are active and what proteins or other cellular products are manufactured by the cell. During transformation of a normal cell to a cancer cell, the signature changes, and that change becomes a signal of the presence of cancer. (Bypass Budget)
Molecular Immunology definition: Sub-discipline of immunology which investigates the molecular interaction involved in antigen recognition and processing, antibody-antigen interactions, cell-cell interactions, cell death, etc.
Molecular Profiling definition: Molecular profiling studies utilize measurement of global mRNA and protein patterns towards identification of the individual genes and collections of genes that mediate particular aspects of cellular physiology and pathology.
Molecular definition: Relating to or produced by or consisting of molecules.
Molecular Imaging definition: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; fluorescence imaging; and MICROSCOPY.
Molecular Microarrays definition: Small solid plates (e.g., glass, silicon, nylon) on which densely packed samples (up to one million or more spots per microarray) of known sequences of nucleic acid nucleotides (e.g., DNA fragments known as oligonucleotides) in a predetermined array are either synthesized using photolithographic procedures or deposited using pin-spotting procedures (e.g., with ink-jet printers). Typically, the microarray is washed with a labeled (e.g., fluorescent) sample of an unknown sequence. The immobilized microarray spots mate with the sample sequences according to their complementary nature. The resulting fluorescence pattern permits the identification of the sample sequence using an appropriate reader (scanner) and/or data processing using a molecular array analyzer. Dedicated molecular microarrays are used for genetic expression, to detect variations in gene copies, and to detect gene mutations/polymorphisms.
Molecular Genetic Abnormality definition: Any alteration in the inherited nucleic acid sequence of the genotype of an organism.
Helix definition: A structure consisting of something wound in a continuous series of loops.
Molecular Imprinting definition: A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.
Dietary Fluorine definition: Form of the element fluorine found in foods.
Dietary Iodine definition: Form of the element iodine found in foods.
molecular mass definition: [1] Molekularmasse
molekular definition: [1] Chemie: die Moleküle betreffend oder auf der Ebene der Moleküle