dict.md logo
Choose languages of interest
SELECT >>
English
Advertisement:
Definition
 
enEnglish
Cardiac myocyte definition: Striated muscle cell which has as its direct parts one or two centrally placed nuclei.
cardiac myocyte definition: striated muscle cells found in the heart; derived from cardiac myoblasts and function in contracting the heart.
Myocytes, Cardiac definition: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Cardiomyocyte definition: A muscle cell in heart tissue (myocardium).
muscle cell definition: mature contractile cells.
Muscle cell definition: Somatic cell which has as direct parts of its cytoplasm myofibrils organized in various patterns.
Muscle Cells definition: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
Muscle Cell definition: A connective tissue cell with the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical energy via a contractile apparatus. As part of the contractile apparatus, the proteins actin and myosin form parallel myofilaments. The interaction of actin and myosin mediates muscle cell contraction in response to stimulation of the excitable cell membrane.
Smooth Muscle Cell definition: An elongated spindle-shaped contractile cell, peculiar to an involuntary muscle, containing a single nucleus and longitudinally arranged myofibrils.
smooth muscle contractile fiber definition: The contractile fiber of smooth muscle cells. [GOC:mah]
Smooth muscle cell definition: Muscle cell which has as its direct parts myofilaments attached to cytoplasmic dense bodies.
Myocytes, Smooth Muscle definition: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
ALK Pathway definition: Heart formation is cued by a combination of positive and negative signals from surrounding tissues. Inhibitory signals that block heart formation in anterior paraxial mesoderm include Wnt family members expressed in dorsal neural tube and anti-BMPs expressed in the axial tissues (i.e., noggin in the notochord). Wnt signaling pathway, which is essential for setting up the entire body pattern during embryonic development, involves glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). In the absence of Wnt signaling, GSK3 is active and phosphorylates b-catenin resulting in its degradation by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Activation of Wnt signaling inhibits GSK3, thereby preventing phosphorylation of b-catenin, which is then able to move to the nucleus. There it associates with members of the LEF-1/TCF family of transcription factors, which activate the transcription of genes like cyclin-D1, myc, and MMPs. The Wnt signaling pathway is blocked by a family of secreted proteins such as crescent and Dkk-1 sufficient for induction of heart formation in posterior mesoderm. BMP signaling can also be blocked by the BMP antagonists noggin and chordin, which are secreted from the notochord and cooperate with Wnts to prevent cardiogenesis. Receptors for BMPs, members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFb) superfamily, are persistently expressed during cardiac development, yet mice lacking type II or type IA BMP receptors die at gastrulation and cannot be used to assess potential later roles in creation of the heart. Activin receptor-like kinase 3 (ALK3) is specifically required at mid-gestation for normal development of the trabeculae, compact myocardium, interventricular septum, and endocardial cushion. Cardiac muscle lacking ALK3 is specifically deficient in expressing TGFb2, an established paracrine mediator of cushion morphogenesis. In humans, congenital heart defects occur with a prevalence of at least 1% in newborns, and are even more common in death before term. Most frequent are defects in septation and the cardiac valves, and few single gene etiologies are known. The invariable defects in myocardium and AV cushion resulting from congenital deletion of ALK3 provide strong support for its assessment as a candidate gene in human congenital heart disease. (BioCarta)
Skeletal muscle cell definition: Striated muscle cell which has as its direct parts two or more peripherally located nuclei.
Muscle Fibers, Skeletal definition: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Rhabdomyocyte definition: Large single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of muscle tissue. They consist of a soft contractile substance enclosed in a tubular sheath. (MeSH)