dict.md logo
Choose languages of interest
SELECT >>
English
German
Advertisement:
Definition
 
enEnglish
Anterior Horn Cells definition: Motor neurons in the anterior (ventral) horn of the spinal cord which project to skeletal muscles.
Anterior Horn Cell definition: Motor neurons in the anterior (ventral) horn of the spinal cord which project to skeletal muscles. (MeSH)
Interneurons definition: Most generally any neurons which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose axons remain within a particular brain region as contrasted with projection neurons which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
interneuron definition: generally neurons which are not motor or sensory; may also refer to neurons whose axons remain within a particular brain region as contrasted with projection neurons which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
Interneuron definition: A general term for any neurons which are not motor or sensory. Interneuron may also refer to neurons whose axons remain within a particular brain region as contrasted with projection neurons which have axons projecting to other brain regions. (from MeSH)
Motor Neurons definition: Neurons which activate muscle cells.
motor neuron definition: efferent neurons which activate muscle cells.
Motor Neuron definition: Neurons which activate muscle cells. (MeSH)
Motor Neurons, Gamma definition: Motor neurons which activate the contractile regions of intrafusal SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, thus adjusting the sensitivity of the MUSCLE SPINDLES to stretch. Gamma motor neurons may be "static" or "dynamic" according to which aspect of responsiveness (or which fiber types) they regulate. The alpha and gamma motor neurons are often activated together (alpha gamma coactivation) which allows the spindles to contribute to the control of movement trajectories despite changes in muscle length.
Gamma Motor Neuron definition: Motor neurons which activate the contractile regions of intrafusal muscle fibers, thus adjusting the sensitivity of the muscle spindles to stretch. (MeSH)
Neurons definition: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
neuron definition: basic cellular units of nervous tissue; each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites and their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system.
neuron definition: A type of cell that receives and sends messages from the body to the brain and back to the body. The messages are sent by a weak electrical current.
Neuron definition: Neural cell which consists of a cell body (soma), axon and dendrites; the neuron is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. Examples: unipolar neuron, bipolar neuron, neuron of retina.
Neuron definition: Any of the conducting cells of the nervous system. A typical neuron consists of a cell body, containing the nucleus and the surrounding cytoplasm (perikaryon); several short radiating processes (dendrites); and one long process (the axon), which terminates in twiglike branches (telodendrons) and may have branches (collaterals) projecting along its course.
Neurons, Afferent definition: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Sensory Neuron definition: Neurons which convey sensory information centrally from the periphery. (MeSH)
Neurons, Efferent definition: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
efferent nerve definition: neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
Efferent Neuron definition: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells. (MeSH)
Nociceptors definition: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
nociceptor definition: receptor for pain caused by damage to body tissue.
Nociceptor definition: A free nerve ending that is a receptor for painful stimuli. (Kanner)
sensory receptor definition: specialized sensory nerve processes or epithelial structures that respond to specific kinds of stimuli in the internal or external environment; this term refers to cells and cellular structures, as opposed to the molecular and submembrane structures covered by RECEPTOR.
Sensory Receptor Cells definition: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Posterior Horn Cells definition: Neurons in the posterior (dorsal) horn of the spinal cord whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the central nervous system. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the white matter ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
Posterior Horn Cell definition: Neurons in the posterior (dorsal) horn of the spinal cord whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the central nervous system. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to anterior horn cells or to the white matter ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
Nitrergic Neurons definition: Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
Nitrergic Neuron definition: A nerve cell that uses nitric oxide as its neurotransmitter.
Bipolar neuron definition: Neuron with an axon and a single dendrite on opposite sides of the soma.
Bipolar Neuron definition: A nerve cell with two processes.
Neuroendocrine Cells definition: Specialized NEURONS that produce hormones, such as NEUROPEPTIDES or BIOGENIC AMINES. They generally are in the NERVOUS SYSTEM, such as HYPOTHALAMUS, but can be found in other organs or systems. These neurons contain dense neurosecretory granules and PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES allowing the rapidly release of NEUROHORMONES into the blood circulation upon stimulation.
Neuroendocrine Cell definition: An endocrine cell that produces and releases hormones and regulatory proteins such as neurotransmitters and neuropeptide hormones. This type of cell enables autocrine communication with paracrine and endocrine cells throughout the body.
Olfactory Receptor Neurons definition: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
Olfactory Receptor Neuron definition: Neurons in the olfactory epithelium with receptors that bind, and thus detect, odorants. Unlike other neurons, they can be generated from precursor cells in adults. (MeSH)
Olfactory Receptor Cell definition: A specialized, fusiform nerve cell with a large nucleus, embedded among the epithelial cells in the mucous membrane of the nose; it carries impulses from the olfactory receptors to the glomeruli in the olfactory bulb.
regulation of neuron apoptosis definition: Any process that modulates the occurrence or rate of cell death by apoptosis in neurons. [GOC:go_curators]
positive regulation of neuron apoptosis definition: Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell death of neurons by apoptosis. [GOC:go_curators]
negative regulation of neuron apoptosis definition: Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell death by apoptosis in neurons. [GOC:go_curators]
neuron apoptosis definition: The process of apoptosis in neurons, the basic cellular unit of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. [MeSH:A.08.663]
ensheathment of neurons definition: The process whereby glial cells envelop neuronal cell bodies and/or axons to form an insulating layer. This can take the form of myelinating or non-myelinating ensheathment. [GOC:dgh, GOC:dph, GOC:tb]
generation of neurons in the forebrain definition: The process by which nerve cells are generated in the forebrain. This includes the production of neuroblasts from and their differentiation into neurons. [GO_REF:0000021, GOC:cls, GOC:dgh, GOC:dph, GOC:jic, GOC:mtg_15jun06]
outward migration of deep nuclear neurons definition: The directed movement of deep nuclear neurons from their ventrolateral origin to a rostrodorsal region of the cerebellar plate. [GO_REF:0000021, GOC:cls, GOC:dgh, GOC:dph, GOC:jic, GOC:mtg_15jun06, PMID:15157725]
inward migration of deep nuclear neurons definition: The directed movement of deep nuclear neurons from the rostrodorsal region of the cerebellar plate to their final more ventral position. [GO_REF:0000021, GOC:cls, GOC:dgh, GOC:dph, GOC:jic, GOC:mtg_15jun06, PMID:15157725]
generation of neurons definition: The process by which nerve cells are generated. This includes the production of neuroblasts and their differentiation into neurons. [GOC:nln]
Retinal Neurons definition: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.