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Definition
 
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oxidation definition: Process in which molecules are split to give products that have unpaired electrons.
oxidation definition: loss of electrons from a compound.
Oxidation definition: The process of oxidizing; the addition of oxygen to a compound accompanied by a loss of electrons.
Oxidation-Reduction definition: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
oxidation reduction definition: The process of removal or addition of one or more electrons with or without the concomitant removal or addition of a proton or protons. [GOC:dl, GOC:ed, GOC:jid, GOC:jm, GOC:mlg, GOC:rh]
oxidation reduction reaction definition: chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred from one reactant to another.
Oxidation/Reduction definition: All electron-transfer reactions are considered oxidation/reduction reactions. The substance gaining electrons ("oxidizing agent" or "oxidant") is oxidizing the substance that is losing electrons ("reducing agent" or "reductant"). In the process, the "oxidizing agent" is itself reduced by the "reducing agent."
toluene oxidation definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the loss of electrons from one or more atoms in toluene. [GOC:mah]
cyclohexanol oxidation definition: The cyclohexanol metabolic process by which cyclohexanol is converted to adipate. [MetaCyc:CYCLOHEXANOL-OXIDATION-PWY]
n-octane oxidation definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the conversion of n-octane to octanoyl-CoA. [MetaCyc:P221-PWY]
ethanol oxidation definition: An ethanol metabolic process by which ethanol is converted to acetyl-CoA via acetaldehyde and acetate. [GOC:mah, MetaCyc:PWY66-161, MetaCyc:PWY66-162, MetaCyc:PWY66-21]
methanol oxidation definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the conversion of methanol to methyl-Coenzyme M. [MetaCyc:CO2FORM-PWY]
anaerobic phenylalanine oxidation definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of phenylalanine under anaerobic conditions; occurs via the intermediates phenylpyruvate and phenylacetaldehyde. [GOC:mah, MetaCyc:ANAPHENOXI-PWY]
hypoxanthine oxidation definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of hypoxanthine to xanthine and thence to uric acid. [GOC:mah, PMID:3196295]
xanthine oxidation definition: The oxidation of xanthine, 2,6-dihydroxypurine, a purine formed in the metabolic breakdown of guanine but not present in nucleic acids. [GOC:jl]
heme oxidation definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the loss of electrons from one or more atoms in heme. [GOC:mah]
NADH oxidation definition: A metabolic process that results in the oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NADH, to the oxidized form, NAD. [GOC:ai]
5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate oxidation definition: OBSOLETE. [GOC:mtg_electron_transport]
oxidation of lead sulfide definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the conversion of lead sulfide to lead sulfate. [MetaCyc:P301-PWY]
photosynthetic water oxidation definition: OBSOLETE. Processes by which a molecule of water is oxidized during photosynthesis. P680+, the photochemically oxidized reaction-center chlorophyll of PSII, is a strong biological oxidant. The reduction potential of P680+ is more positive than that of water, and thus it can oxidize water to give O2 and H+ ions. The oxygen escapes as a gas while the H+ ions remain in solution inside the thylakoid vesicle. [GOC:jic, ISBN:0716743663, ISBN:0816017360]
fatty acid oxidation definition: The removal of one or more electrons from a fatty acid, with or without the concomitant removal of a proton or protons, by reaction with an electron-accepting substance, by addition of oxygen or by removal of hydrogen. [ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology", MetaCyc:FAO-PWY]
fatty acid alpha-oxidation definition: Pathway by which 3-methyl branched fatty acids are degraded. These compounds are not degraded by the normal peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway, because the 3-methyl blocks the dehydrogenation of the hydroxyl group by hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The 3-methyl branched fatty acid is converted in several steps to pristenic acid, which can then feed into the beta-oxidative pathway. [http://www.peroxisome.org/Scientist/Biochemistry/alpha-oxidation.html]
fatty acid beta-oxidation definition: The metabolic oxidation of a long-chain fatty acid by successive cycles of reactions during each of which the fatty acid is shortened by a two-carbon fragment removed as acetyl coenzyme A. [ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
regulation of fatty acid oxidation definition: Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of fatty acid oxidation. [GOC:ai]
ammonia oxidation definition: The chemical reactions and pathways by which ammonia or ammonium is converted to molecular nitrogen or another nitrogen compound, with accompanying loss of electrons. [GOC:mah, MetaCyc:AMMOXID-PWY, MetaCyc:P303-PWY, MetaCyc:PWY-2242]
formate oxidation definition: The chemical reactions and pathways by which formate is converted to CO2. [MetaCyc:PWY-1881]
lactate oxidation definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the conversion of lactate to other compounds, such as pyruvate, with concomitant loss of electrons. [GOC:mah]
pyruvate oxidation definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the conversion of pyruvate to acetylphosphate. [MetaCyc:PYRUVOX-PWY]
lipoprotein oxidation definition: The modification of a lipoprotein by oxidation of one or more amino acids or the lipid moiety. [GOC:mah]
peptidyl-cysteine oxidation definition: The oxidation of peptidyl-cysteine to peptidyl-L-cysteine sulfinic acid or peptidyl-L-cysteine sulfenic acid. [PMID:9586994, RESID:AA0205, RESID:AA0262]
protein cysteine-thiol oxidation definition: OBSOLETE. Oxidation of two cysteine sulfhydryl groups (thiols) in one protein by a disulfide bond in a second protein to form a disulfide bond in the first protein and two reduced sulfhydryls in the second. The oxidized cysteines linked by a disulfide bond is known as cystine. [http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/aminoacids/pages/cystine.html, http://www.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/pentose-phosphate-pathway.html, RESID:AA0025]
peptidyl-lysine oxidation definition: The oxidation of the terminal amino-methylene groups of peptidyl-L-lysine or peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine to aldehyde groups to form allysine or hydroxyallysine residues, respectively; these are intermediates in the formation of covalent cross-links between adjacent polypeptide chains in proteins such as collagens. [ISBN:0198547684, RESID:AA0121]
peptidyl-methionine oxidation definition: The oxidation of peptidyl-L-methionine to peptidyl-L-methionine sulfone. [RESID:AA0251]
protein amino acid oxidation definition: The modification of a protein amino acid by oxidation. [GOC:ai]
polythionate oxidation definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the conversion of thiosulfate to tetrathionate, using cytochrome c as as electron acceptor. [MetaCyc:THIOSULFOX-PWY]
sulfide oxidation definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting the conversion of of sulfide to elemental sulfur in a higher oxidation state, or to sulfite or sulfate. [MetaCyc:P222-PWY, MetaCyc:P223-PWY, MetaCyc:PWY-5274, MetaCyc:PWY-5285]
sulfur oxidation definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting the addition of oxygen to elemental sulfur. [GOC:jl, MetaCyc:FESULFOX-PWY, MetaCyc:SULFUROX-PWY]
Oxidation-Reduction Interaction definition: An Oxidation-Reduction Interaction is a non-enzymatic physical interaction between atoms or radicals in which the positive charges on an atom increase (or the negative charges on that atom decrease) while the negative charges on the other atom increase (or the positive charges on that other atom decrease).
Oxidation-Reduction Potential definition: The potential developed by a metallic electrode when placed in a solution containing a species in two different oxidation states.
fatty acid omega-oxidation definition: The metabolic oxidation of a long-chain fatty acid by successive cycles of reactions during each of which the omega-carbon in a fatty acid (the carbon furthest in the alkyl chain from the carboxylic acid) is progressively oxidized first to an alcohol and then to a carboxylic acid, creating a molecule with a carboxylic acid on both ends. [PMID:16404574]
aerobic sulfur oxidation definition: A sulfur oxidation process that proceeds via the reaction catalyzed by sulfur dioxygenase, and requires the presence of oxygen. [MetaCyc:SULFUROX-PWY]
iodide oxidation definition: The chemical reactions and pathways by which iodide is converted to diiodine, with the concomitant loss of electrons. [GOC:mah, MetaCyc:IODIDE-PEROXIDASE-RXN]
oxidation-dependent protein catabolic process definition: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the oxidation of one or more amino acid residues in the protein. [GOC:mah]
lipoprotein amino acid oxidation definition: The modification of a lipoprotein by oxidation of one or more amino acids in the protein. [GOC:mah]
lipoprotein lipid oxidation definition: The modification of a lipoprotein by oxidation of the lipid moiety. [GOC:mah]
lipid oxidation definition: The removal of one or more electrons from a lipid, with or without the concomitant removal of a proton or protons, by reaction with an electron-accepting substance, by addition of oxygen or by removal of hydrogen. [GOC:mah]
plasma lipoprotein oxidation definition: The modification of a lipoprotein by oxidation of one or more amino acids or the lipid moiety, occurring in the blood plasma. [GOC:mah]
regulation of lipoprotein oxidation definition: Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of lipoprotein oxidation. [GOC:mah]
negative regulation of lipoprotein oxidation definition: Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of lipoprotein oxidation. [GOC:mah]
regulation of plasma lipoprotein oxidation definition: Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of lipoprotein oxidation, occurring in the blood plasma. [GOC:mah]