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Definition
 
enEnglish
Proteins definition: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
protein definition: linear polymers of alpha-L-aminoacids ranging in size from a few thousand to over 1 million daltons, capable of oligomerization, with specific functions dictated by aminoacid sequence and encoded genetically.
Protein definition: A group of complex organic macromolecules composed of one or more chains (linear polymers) of alpha-L-amino acids linked by peptide bonds and ranging in size from a few thousand to over 1 million Daltons. Proteins are fundamental genetically encoded components of living cells with specific structures and functions dictated by amino acid sequence.
Staphylococcal Protein A definition: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
staphylococcus aureus protein A definition: A protein that resides in the microbial wall of staphylococcus aureus and interferes with opsonization by binding to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin. The protein has a deleterious effect on the epithelial cells that line the respiratory tract, and plays a role in the induction of pneumonia. Protein A also initiates polymorphonuclear cell migration into airway passages via TNFR1 activation. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39057&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39057&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C17166" NCI Thesaurus)
HMGA1a definition: HMGA1a is one of three protein products of the same gene, HMGA1, generated by alternative splicing. The HMGA1a protein contains three basic domains, named AT-hooks and an acidic C-terminal region. AT-hooks are responsible for binding to AT-rich sequences inside the minor groove of DNA. Phosphorylation of HMGA1a by both PKC and cdc-2 kinases strongly reduces its DNA binding affinity and is critical in cell cycle progression. HMGA1a activates the interferon-beta gene (IFN-beta) by functioning as the essential architectural component for the assembly and stability of the IFN-beta enhanceosome. (PMID11576996)
Staphylococcus aureus Protein A definition: A protein that resides in the microbial wall of staphylococcus aureus and interferes with opsonization by binding to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin. The protein has a deleterious effect on the epithelial cells that line the respiratory tract, and plays a role in the induction of pneumonia. Protein A also initiates polymorphonuclear cell migration into airway passages via TNFR1 activation.
14-3-3 Proteins definition: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1 definition: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
Proto-Oncogene Proteins A-raf definition: A raf kinase subclass expressed primarily in non-neuronal tissues such as SKELETAL MUSCLE. The A-raf kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1.
A-RAF Protein Kinase definition: Encoded by human ARAF1 Gene (MIL/RAF Family), cytoplasmic A-RAF [serine/threonine] Protein Kinase contains a DAG binding and a RBD domain, and is involved in transduction of mitogenic signals from cell membrane to nucleus.
Steroidogenic Factor 1 definition: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.
Steroidogenic Factor 1 definition: Steroidogenic factor 1 (461 aa, ~52 kDa) is encoded by the human NR5A1 gene. This protein plays a role in the activation of transcription of steroidogenic genes.
LDL-Receptor Related Protein-Associated Protein definition: A membrane protein found in the rough endoplasm reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) that binds to LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEINS. It may function to prevent ligand binding of receptors during protein processing events within endosomal compartments.
Agouti Signaling Protein definition: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.
AF-4 Protein definition: Widely expressed by human MLLT2 Gene (AF4 Family), 1210-aa 131-kDa AF-4 Protein is a serine- and proline-rich putative transcription factor with a glutamine-rich carboxyl terminus and high sequence homology with ENL protein. A common acute leukemia chromosomal translocation t(4;11)(q21;q23) involves a fusion of MLLT2 and MLL/HRX that form reciprocal products coding for chimeric rogue proteins.
AF-9 Protein definition: Encoded by human MLLT3 Gene, 568-aa 63-kDa AF-9 Protein is a putative transcription factor similar to TFG3/ANC1 (Yeast) and contains similar functional domains as MLLT1 and MLLT2 (Human), including nuclear targeting sequences, serine-rich and proline-rich regions, and stretches abundant in basic amino acids. A common acute leukemia chromosomal translocation t(9;11)(p22;q23) involves a fusion of MLLT3 and MLL/HRX that produces a chimeric rogue activator protein.
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Pathway Substrate 15 definition: Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 15; has a role in normal and neoplastic cell proliferation. (LocusLink)
Myb-Related Protein A definition: A DNA-binding, transcriptional activator with a possible role in proliferation and/or differentiation of neurogenic, spermatogenic and B-lymphoid cells. A-Myb specifically recognizes the DNA sequence 5'-YAAC(G/T)G-3' and belongs to the Myb family. (from SWISS-PROT P10243, OMIM 159405, and NCI)
4-1BB Ligand definition: A membrane bound member of the TNF superfamily that is expressed on activated B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; and DENDRITIC CELLS. The ligand is specific for the 4-1BB RECEPTOR and may play a role in inducing the proliferation of activated peripheral blood T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Protein definition: Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Protein, encoded by the ATM gene, belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. This protein is an important cell cycle checkpoint kinase that phosphorylates and functions as a regulator of a wide variety of downstream proteins, including tumor suppressor proteins p53 and BRCA1, checkpoint kinase CHK2, checkpoint proteins RAD17 and RAD9, and DNA repair protein NBS1. This protein and the closely related kinase ATR are master controllers of cell cycle checkpoint signaling pathways that are required for cell response to DNA damage and for genome stability. Mutations in this gene are associated with ataxia telangiectasia, which results in a defect in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. Mutations are also associated with sensitivity to DNA damaging agents such as ionizing radiation. At least 3 alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms, have been identified. (from LocusLink)
Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Protein definition: The ATM protein has several functions and its PI3 kinase motif is required for maintaining telomere length, chromosome stability, mitogenic signal transduction, meiotic recombination, and cell cycle checkpoint control. Ionizing radiation enhances p53-directed kinase activity of ATM, contributing to activation of p53 and transcription of p21, and to cell cycle arrest. IR also promotes p53 binding of 14-3-3 proteins and increased p53 affinity for DNA. ATM is part of the BASC multi-subunit complex, which may sense abnormal DNA structures and/or regulate the post-replication repair process. The ATM gene is defective in Ataxia Telangiectasia, due to defects in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. (from OMIM 208900 and NCI)
Iron Regulatory Protein 1 definition: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
AF-6 Protein definition: Expressed in a variety of cell types by human MLLT4 Gene, 1816-aa 206-kDa AF-6 Protein is a possible signal transduction protein controlled by Ras signaling pathways that is strongly similar to afadin (rat) and contains short stretches rich in proline, charged amino acids, serines, or glutamines, 1 dilute domain, 1 FHA domain, 1 PDZ/DHR domain, and 2 RAS-associating domains. Shared with several vertebrate and invertebrate proteins, the MLLT4 GLGF motif may be involved in signal transduction at special cell-cell junctions. MLLT4 binds directly to ZO-1 and occludin. MLLT4 may bind to actin filaments, linking the actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane at cell-to-cell adherens junctions. A common acute leukemia chromosomal translocation t(6;11)(q27;q23) involves fusion of MLLT4 and MLL/HRX that results in production of a rogue activator protein.
Adiponectin definition: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
adiponectin definition: peptide hormone produced by adipocytes, involved in glucose and lipid regulation.
Glomulin definition: Encoded by human GLMN Gene, two alternative isoforms of ubiquitous monomeric Glomulin interact with immunophilins FKBP59, FKBPP52, and FKBP12 that bind the macrolide immunosuppressants FK506 and rapamycin. A possible membrane anchoring protein, Glomulin may couple hepatocyte growth factor receptor signaling to the p70 S6 protein kinase pathway. (NCI)
Total Protein Measurement definition: A quantitative measurement of the amount of total protein present in a sample.
Protein definition: A measurement of a group of complex organic macromolecules composed of one or more alpha-L-amino acid chains in a biological specimen.
Actin-Related Protein 2 definition: A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.
Actin-Related Protein 3 definition: A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.
FBXW7 Protein definition: Encoded by human FBXW7 Gene, alpha and beta AGO Protein (F-Box Family), 707 and 627 amino acids respectively, differ in their N-termini and contain the putative functional F box and seven WD repeats. F-box proteins constitute one of four SCF subunits of the ubiquitin protein ligase complex, involved in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. AGO protein binds to cyclin E, and probably targets it for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. AGO mutant cells have elevated levels of cyclin E without increased cyclin E mRNA levels. Homologue of Cdc4 (S. cerevisiae) and Archipelago (Drosophila), human AGO also has low similarity to Met30p (S. cerevisiae). Drosophila and human AGO are 78% identical. AGO may represent a mutational target in ovarian cancer. (from OMIM and NCI)
protein protein interaction definition: interaction among or within protein domains which may alter the structure thus affecting the function of the protein or group of proteins.
Protein-Protein Interaction definition: Temporary, non-covalent binding between protein molecules. Protein-protein interactions occur as a result of intermolecular physical forces and spatial complementation between domains or motifs. This interaction can be either homotypic or heterotypic and effect protein structure, conformation, and function.
Adaptor Signaling Protein definition: A class of signaling pathway proteins that function to mediate the coupling of multiple cell surface receptors to downstream signaling pathways in the regulation of various cellular functions. (from Oncogene 2001;20:6315-21)
AF-17 Protein definition: Encoded by human MLLT6 Gene, 1093-aa 112-kDa AF-17 Protein has high similarity to AF10 and contains amino acid stretches associated with transcriptional repression or activation: a 3-prime leucine-zipper dimerization motif and a terminal cysteine-rich domain of 3 zinc fingers (2 PHD-type) similar to a domain in Br140 protein. A common acute leukemia chromosomal translocation t(11;17)(q23;q21) involves fusion of MLL/HRX and MLLT6 that produces a rogue activator protein.
protein definition: OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete). [GOC:ai]
ADAM11 Protein definition: This protein is a member of the ADAM protein family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biologic processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. The gene represents a candidate tumor supressor gene for human breast cancer based on its location within a minimal region of chromosome 17q21 previously defined by tumor deletion mapping. (LocusLink)
ADAM11 Protein definition: Encoded by human ADAM11 Gene (ADAM Family, Peptidase M12b Family), the 769-amino acid 83 kD (precursor) type I membrane ADAM11 Protein (isoforms MDC-769 and MDC-524) is implicated in cell-cell/-matrix interactions of muscle development, neurogenesis, and fertilization. Membrane-anchored ADAM zinc metalloproteases contain disintegrin domains related to snake venom disintegrins. A putative integrin ligand, ADAM11 is a metalloprotease-like noncatalytic protein predominantly expressed in brain that contains an EGF-like domain and a conserved disintegrin domain AVN(E/D)CD motif. The precursor may be cleaved by a furin endopeptidase. ADAM11 disruptions occur in breast and ovarian cancers. (from LocusLink, Swiss-Prot, OMIM, and NCI)
ALL1 Fused Gene From 5q31 definition: ALL1 Fused Gene From 5q31, a protein encoded by the AF5q31 gene, is a transcription factor. It is expressed in fetal heart, lung, and brain at relatively high levels and in fetal liver at a low level, but the expression in these tissues is decreased in adults. The AF5q31 protein is homologous to AF4-related proteins, including AF4, LAF4, and FMR2. The AF5q31 and AF4 proteins have 3 homologous regions, including the transactivation domain of AF4. Infantile acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with rearrangements of the MLL gene is characterized by early pre-B phenotype and poor treatment outcome. The AF5Q31 gene is a fusion partner of the MLL gene involved in the pathogenesis of 11q23-associated ALL. (From LocusLink and OMIM)
Adenovirus Protein definition: Proteins that are encoded by adenoviral genes.
Protein Phosphatase Regulatory Protein definition: Protein Phosphatase Regulatory Proteins are constant regulatory/scaffolding subunits of PP2 that coordinate assembly of the phosphatase catalytic subunit and various regulatory subunits or cell signaling molecules. A major Ser/Thr phosphatase implicated in negative control of cell growth and division, PP2A core enzyme consists of a 36-kDa catalytic C subunit and a constant 65-kDa regulatory/structural A subunit that interact with either a B regulatory subunit or with cell signaling molecules, that likely modulate substrate selectivity, catalytic activity, and subcellular localization, yielding the trimeric holoenzyme. Combinations of different subunit isoforms can generate many forms of PP2A, which may differ in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, or tissue specific expression. (NCI)
WAS Gene definition: This gene is involved in signal transduction and plays a role in cell communication and organization.
Protein Binding Domain definition: Protein Binding Domains are structural motifs responsible for the peptide/protein binding activity of proteins.
Protein Kinase Protein Phosphorylation definition: Protein Kinase Protein Phosphorylation involves covalent linkage of a phosphate group (from a donor compound such as ATP) with a serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue of a Protein Kinase acceptor, often as a mechanism of kinase activity regulation.
Protein Info definition: Protein; provides access to the encoding gene via its GenBank Accession, the taxon in which this instance of the protein occurs, and references to homologous proteins in other species.
Protein Interaction Domains definition: Recognition modules in proteins that mediate interactions between specific proteins involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. They fold to form recognition pockets complementary to the short interaction sequence motifs on their LIGANDS.
protein definition: Protéine.
 
 
deGerman
Protein definition: [1] Biochemie: ein aus Aminosäuren aufgebautes Makromolekül
Eiweiß definition: [1] gallertartige Substanz, die den Dotter in Vogeleiern umgibt [2] makromolekulare Grundbausteine der Zellen
Protein definition: Protéine, protide
 
itItalian
proteina definition: [1] das Protein, das Eiweiß
 
frFrench
protéine definition: Macromolécule constituée d’une ou plusieurs chaines d’au moins cinquante acides aminés appelées polypeptides (auxquelles sont souvent ajoutés des groupements divers), possédant une structure tridimensionnelle.
 
trTurkish
protein definition: Protéine.