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Definition
 
enEnglish
hydrogen transporting ATP synthase definition: two domain protein (F1 and F0) of inner mitochondrial membrane which couples electron transport to ATP synthesis via the proton gradient across the membrane when uncoupled, the reverse (ATPase) reaction drives a proton pump.
Proton-Translocating ATPases definition: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Proton Pumps definition: Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
Protons definition: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
proton definition: A small, positively charged particle of matter found in the atoms of all elements. Streams of protons generated by special equipment can be used for radiation treatment.
hydrogen ion definition: the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom; stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements.
Proton-Phosphate Symporters definition: Proteins that cotransport hydrogen ions and phosphate ions across cellular membranes.
Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter definition: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
sodium hydrogen exchanger definition: plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporters that function in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases definition: Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.
Proton-Motive Force definition: Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)
Inorganic Pyrophosphatase definition: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of diphosphate (DIPHOSPHATES) into inorganic phosphate. The hydrolysis of pyrophosphate is coupled to the transport of HYDROGEN IONS across a membrane.
Proton Pump Inhibitors definition: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
Proton Pump Inhibitor definition: Any one of the substituted benzimidazole compounds with anti-ulcer activity. A proton pump inhibitor is orally administered in the neutrally charged, inactive form and, upon entering the acidic environment of the parietal cell, gets protonated and converted into its active form. The active form will covalently and irreversibly bind to the proton pump, the H+/K+-ATPase, located on the surface of parietal cells. This leads to an inhibition of the transport of hydrogen ions, in exchange for potassium ions, into the gastric lumen and results in an inhibition of gastric acid secretion.
Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases definition: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
proton beam definition: focused beam of accelerated protons; often used in stereotactic radiosurgery and radiation therapy.
Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases definition: Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.
Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases definition: Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.
acetylcholine:hydrogen antiporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: H+(out) + acetylcholine(in) = H+(in) + acetylcholine(out). [TC:2.A.1.2.13]
monoamine:hydrogen antiporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: H+(out) + monoamine(in) = H+(in) + monoamine(out). [TC:2.A.1.2.11, TC:2.A.1.2.12]
gamma-aminobutyric acid:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: gamma-aminobutyric acid(out) + H+(out) = gamma-aminobutyric acid(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.18.5.1, TC:2.A.3.1.4, TC:2.A.3.4.2]
lysine:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: lysine(out) + H+(out) = lysine(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.3.1.2]
phenylalanine:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: phenylalanine(out) + H+(out) = phenylalanine(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.3.1.1]
polyamine:hydrogen antiporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: H+(out) + polyamine(in) = H+(in) + polyamine(out). [TC:2.A.1.2.16]
lactose,galactose:proton symporter definition: OBSOLETE. Catalysis of the reaction: (lactose or galactose)(out) + H+(out) = (lactose or galactose)(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.1.1.9]
lactose:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: lactose(out) + H+(out) = lactose(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.1.1.9, TC:2.A.1.5.1]
maltose:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: maltose(out) + H+(out) = maltose(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.1.1.10]
fucose:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: fucose(out) + H+(out) = fucose(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.1.7.1]
galactose:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: galactose(out) + H+(out) = galactose(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.1.1.1, TC:2.A.1.1.9]
arabinose:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: arabinose(out) + H+(out) = arabinose(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.1.1.2]
2-keto-3-deoxygluconate:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate(out) + H+(out) = 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.10.1.1]
hexose:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: hexose(out) + H+(out) = hexose(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.1.-.-]
lactate:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: lactate (out) + H+ (out) = lactate (in) + H+ (in). [TC:2.A.14.1.1]
potassium:hydrogen antiporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: K+(in) + H+(out) = K+(out) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.37.-.-]
calcium:hydrogen antiporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: Ca2+(in) + H+(out) = Ca2+(out) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.19.2.-]
drug:hydrogen antiporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: H+(out) + drug(in) = H+(in) + drug(out). [TC:2.A.1.2.-, TC:2.A.1.3.-]
amiloride:hydrogen antiporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: H+(out) + amiloride(in) = H+(in) + amiloride(out). [TC:2.A.1.2.1]
aminotriazole:hydrogen antiporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: H+(out) + aminotriazole(in) = H+(in) + aminotriazole(out). [TC:2.A.1.3.1]
bicyclomycin/sulfathiazole:proton antiporter definition: OBSOLETE. Catalysis of the reaction: (bicyclomycin or sulfathiazole)(in) + H+(out) = (bicyclomycin or sulfathiazole)(out) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.1.2.7]
fluconazole:hydrogen antiporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: H+(out) + fluconazole(in) = H+(in) + fluconazole(out). [TC:2.A.1.2.17]
benomyl:hydrogen antiporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: H+(out) + benomyl(in) = H+(in) + benomyl(out). [TC:2.A.1.2.6]
cycloheximide:hydrogen antiporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: H+(out) + cycloheximide(in) = H+(in) + cycloheximide(out). [TC:2.A.1.2.2]
hydrophobic uncoupler:hydrogen antiporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: hydrophobic uncoupler(in) + H+(out) = hydrophobic uncoupler(out) + H+(in). Hydrophobic uncouplers include CCCP, benzalkonium and SDS. [TC:2.A.1.2.9]
ferric enterobactin:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ferric enterobactin(out) + H+(out) = ferric enterobactin(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.1.16.2]
phosphate:proton symporter definition: OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete). [GOC:go_curators]
phosphate:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: phosphate(out) + H+(out) = phosphate(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.1.9.-]
acetate:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: acetate(out) + H+(out) = acetate(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.44.4.1]
alpha-ketoglutarate:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: alpha-ketoglutarate(out) + H+(out) = alpha-ketoglutarate(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.1.6.2]
citrate:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: citrate(out) + H+(out) = citrate(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.1.6.1]
malate:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: malate(out) + H+(out) = malate(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.16.2.1]
nitrate:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: nitrate(out) + H+(out) = nitrate(in) + H+(in). [UniProtKB:Q05085]
peptide:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: peptide(out) + H+(out) = peptide(in) + H+(in). Catalysis of the transfer of a peptide from one side of a membrane to the other, up its concentration gradient. The transporter binds the solute and undergoes a series of conformational changes. Transport works equally well in either direction and is driven by hydrogen ion movement. [GOC:mtg_transport, TC:2.A.17.-.-]
auxin:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: auxin(out) + H+(out) = auxin(in) + H+(in). [PMID:8688077]
nucleoside:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: nucleoside(out) + H+(out) = nucleoside(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.1.10.1, TC:2.A.41.1.1]
potassium:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: K+(out) + H+(out) = K+(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.38.-.-]
glycine betaine:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: glycine betaine(out) + H+(out) = glycine betaine(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.15.1.1]
hydrogen ion transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of hydrogen ions from one side of a membrane to the other. [GOC:ai]
regulation of cellular pH definition: Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium of hydrogen ions (protons) within a cell or between a cell and its external environment. [GOC:dph, GOC:mah, GOC:tb]
proton transport definition: The directed movement of protons (hydrogen ions) into, out of, within or between cells. [GOC:jl]
light-driven proton transport definition: The transport of protons against an electrochemical gradient, using energy from light. [GOC:mah]
Radiotherapy Systems, Proton Beam definition: Radiotherapy systems designed to deliver a beam of protons. These systems include a particle accelerator (e.g., cyclotron, synchrotron), a delivery system, range modulators, fixed beamlines and/or isocentric gantries, patient alignment capability, and a computerized control unit. The use of protons provides a more defined range and less lateral scattering than conventional radiation therapy (e.g., photon, x-ray, gamma ray, electron), permitting the use of highly conformal (i.e., shaped for the tumor) radiotherapy techniques to minimize the doses to critical anatomic structures. Lower-energy protons (60 to 100 MeV) are used to treat superficial disorders, while higher-energy protons (above 150 MeV) are typically used for deep-seated tumors. Specialized proton-beam radiotherapy systems are available for treatment of eye melanomas and certain skull-based or spinal tumors (e.g., chordomas); high-energy systems may be used for treatment of tumors in the chest and/or abdomen.
D-xylose:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: D-xylose(out) + H+(out) = D-xylose(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.1.1.3]
acridine:hydrogen antiporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: H+(out) + acridine(in) = H+(in) + acridine(out). [PMID:10735876]
Proton Radiation definition: Radiation of protons during radioactive decay.
proton mass definition: 1.6726231 x 10-24 g
proton mass definition: 1.6726231 x 10-24 g
myo-inositol:hydrogen symporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: myo-inositol(out) + H+(out) = myo-inositol(in) + H+(in). [TC:2.A.1.1.8]
proton definition: [1] Proton
proton definition: Proton.
proton definition: Proton.
 
 
deGerman
Proton definition: [1] einfach positiv geladenes Nukleon (ein Baustein des Atomkerns), bestehend aus einem Down- und zwei Up-Quarks [2] ein positiv geladenes Wasserstoff-Ion
Proton definition: Proton.
 
ltLithuanian
protonas definition: [1] Proton
 
frFrench
proton definition: [1] Proton
hydrogène definition: Élément chimique de numéro atomique 1 et de symbole '''H''', qui fait partie des non-métaux.
hydrogène definition: Gaz inodore, incolore et inflammable, composé de dihydrogène (formule chimique ). C’est le gaz le plus léger de tous après l’hydrogène monoatomique.
proton definition: Particule élémentaire stable du noyau atomique, de charge positive. Un proton est composé de trois quarks.
 
ptPortuguese
próton definition: Proton.
 
afAfrikaans
proton definition: Proton.
 
bsBosnian
proton definition: Proton.
 
brBreton
proton definition: Proton.
 
hrCroatian
proton definition: Proton.
 
daDanish
proton definition: Proton.
proton definition: Proton.
 
huHungarian
proton definition: Proton.
 
idIndonesian
proton definition: Proton.
 
iaInterlingua
proton definition: Proton.
 
laLatin
proton definition: Proton.
 
lnLingala
proton definition: Proton.
 
msMalay
proton definition: Proton.
 
noNorwegian
proton definition: Proton.
 
nnNorwegian Nynorsk
proton definition: Proton.
 
nlDutch
proton definition: Proton.
 
ocOccitan (post 1500); Provençal
proton definition: Proton.
 
plPolish
proton definition: Proton.
 
roRomanian
proton definition: Proton.
 
shSerbo-Croatian
proton definition: Proton.
 
slSlovenian
proton definition: Proton.
 
suSundanese
proton definition: Proton.
 
svSwedish
proton definition: Proton.
 
csCzech
proton definition: Proton.
 
trTurkish
proton definition: Proton.
 
viVietnamese
proton definition: Proton.
 
glGallegan
protón definition: Proton.