dict.md logo
Choose languages of interest
Add further languages:
Add all languages
Receptors, Purinergic P1 definition: A class of cell surface receptors that prefers ADENOSINE to other endogenous purines. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra). The methylxanthines, e.g., CAFFEINE, bind to these receptors, but also have other unrelated effects.
Adenosine Receptor definition: One of the purinergic P1 receptors that prefers adenosine to other endogenous purines.
Adenosine Receptor definition: The three conserved (GPCR Family) widely expressed types of Adenosine Receptors (A1, A2, A3) exhibit specific patterns of ligand binding and unique tissue distributions. Each cell-surface integral membrane protein receptor contains a 7 transmembrane domain and interacts with a heterotrimeric G protein complex in response to adenosine ligand to stimulate or suppress cAMP accumulation through adenylate cyclase activation or inhibition. Regulating diverse physiologic functions (cardiac rate and contractility, smooth muscle tone, sedation, release of neurotransmitters, platelet function, lipolysis, renal function, white blood cell function, and spermatozoal capacitation), adenosine receptors modulate the activity of neuronal populations, platelets, neutrophils, and mast cells, and smooth muscle cells in bronchi and vasculature. A potent biologic mediator, most effects of adenosine protect cells during stress.
Purinergic P1 Receptor definition: Cell surface receptors that bind to adenosine. These receptors have an enhanced affinity for adenosine and preferentially bind to this nucleoside compared to other purine moieties present within the body. Two types of receptors, termed A1 and A2, have been identified and they are both widely expressed in the body.
Receptor Aggregation definition: Chemically stimulated aggregation of cell surface receptors, which potentiates the action of the effector cell.
Receptors, Adrenergic definition: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
adrenergic receptor definition: family of G protein coupled receptors sensitive to epinephrine, norepinephrine, and their analogs, found in smooth and cardiac muscle, autonomic ganglia, brain, and elsewhere.
cholinergic receptor definition: since the 2 subtypes are distinctly different receptors, use MUSCARINIC or NICOTINIC whenever possible; use this general term only for unspecified binding of acetylcholine and related ligands.
Receptors, Cholinergic definition: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Receptors, Albumin definition: Cell surface proteins that bind albumin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Receptors, Aldosterone definition: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind aldosterone and mediate its cellular effects. The aldosterone-bound receptor acts in the nucleus to regulate the transcription of specific segments of DNA.
LDL-Receptor Related Protein 1 definition: A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.
Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon definition: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor definition: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated helix/loop/helix transcription factor found in a variety of vertebrate species. Many foreign planar aromatic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic compounds and halogenated aromatic compounds such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are ligands of AhR. Unlike the steroid/thyroid hormone receptors, there is no known physiological ligand for the AhR.
Receptors, Corticotropin definition: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.
Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors definition: Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
Receptors, Mineralocorticoid definition: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind mineralocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA. Mineralocorticoids were named for their actions on extracellular electrolyte concentrations. The most important example is aldosterone.
Mineralocorticoid Receptor definition: Highly expressed as 4 alternative isoforms in kidney and sweat glands by human NR3C2 Gene (NR3 Family), ubiquitous phosphorylated Mineralocorticoid Receptor contains an N-terminal modulating domain, a DNA-binding domain, and a C-terminal steroid (mineralocorticoid/glucocorticoid)-binding domain. Absent ligand, NR3C2 resides in a heteromultimeric cytoplasmic complex with HSP90, HSP70, and FKBP4 or with HSD11B2 in the ER membrane. Ligand-activated NR3C2 translocates to the nucleus, binds to DNA mineralocorticoid response elements as a homodimer or heterodimer with NR3C1, and transactivates target gene expression, which increases ion and water transport; raises extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure; and lowers potassium levels. NR3C2 appears to bind NCOA1, NCOA2, TIF1, and NRIP1. NR3C2 defects cause PHA1 and early onset hypertension. (NCI)
Receptors, AMPA definition: Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and directly gate ion channels in cell membranes. AMPA receptors were originally discriminated from other glutamate receptors by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid). They are probably the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Several subtypes have been cloned, and for some types the traditional distinction from kainate receptors may not apply.
AMPA receptor definition: subtype of glutamate receptor activated by alpha-amino-5-methyl isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA); mediates rapid, excitatory signalling between central neurons; capable of rapid desensitization.
Insulin Receptor-Related Receptor definition: Encoded by human INSRR Gene (Insulin Receptor Family), 1297-aa 144-kDa (precursor) Insulin Receptor-Related Receptor is a type I membrane protein containing 4 fibronectin type III domains, a probable tetramer of disulfide-linked alpha and beta chains, and structurally similar to INSR and IGF1R. The two alpha chains contribute to formation of the ligand-binding domain for an insulin related protein; the two beta chains carry the tyrosine kinase domain. INSRR phosphorylates insulin receptor substrates IRS-1 and IRS-2. (NCI)
Activin Receptors definition: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.
Receptors, Calcitriol definition: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
vitamin D receptor definition: use for receptors of any of the D vitamins.
Vitamin D3 Receptor definition: Vitamin D3 Receptors are cytoplasmic polypeptides that specifically bind 1,25(OH)2D3, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific target genes to produce a variety of biologic effects. The VDR protein belongs to the steroid superfamily of trans-acting transcriptional regulatory factors and is most closely related to the thyroid hormone receptors. VDR residues immediately N-terminal of the first DNA-binding zinc finger are vital for contact with TFIIB. (from OMIM 601769 and NCI)
Autocrine Mobility Factor Receptor definition: Autocrine mobility factor receptor (323 aa, 34 kD) is a cell motility process protein that is encoded by the human AMFR gene and has roles in cell motility and signal transduction.
Autocrine Mobility Factor Receptor definition: Secreted by tumor cells, autocrine motility factor stimulates tumor motility. Its glycoprotein receptor, Autocrine Mobility Factor Receptor, has some homology to p53. In normal fibroblasts, receptor expression appears to be regulated by cell-cell contact. The level of expression is associated with the pathologic stage and grade of tumor penetration. Positive AMFR expression on tumor cells correlates with poor prognosis in bladder cancer. (from OMIM 603243 and NCI)
Antigens, CD137 definition: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Receptor, Cholecystokinin A definition: A subtype of cholecystokinin receptor found primarily in the PANCREAS; STOMACH; INTESTINE; and GALLBLADDER. It plays a role in regulating digestive functions such as gallbladder contraction, pancreatic enzyme secretion and absorption in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2B definition: A serotonin receptor subtype found in the BRAIN; HEART; LUNGS; PLACENTA and DIGESTIVE SYSTEM organs. A number of functions have been attributed to the action of the 5-HT2B receptor including the development of cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) and the contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A definition: A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.
Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3 definition: A subclass of serotonin receptors that form cation channels and mediate signal transduction by depolarizing the cell membrane. The cation channels are formed from 5 receptor subunits. When stimulated the receptors and allow the selective passage of SODIUM; POTASSIUM; and CALCIUM.
Serotonin 5-HT-3 Receptor definition: Serotonin 5-HT-3 Receptor, encoded by the human HTR3 gene, is one of the several different receptors for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. Whereas all other known serotonin receptor subtypes are G protein-coupled receptors, this receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which when activated causes fast, depolarizing responses in neurons. It is a cation-specific, but otherwise relatively nonselective, ion channel. Two isoforms, 1/5-HT3R-AS and 2/5-HT3R-AL, are produced by alternative splicing. (From OMIM, Swiss-Prot and NCI)
Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4 definition: A subtype of G-protein-coupled SEROTONIN receptors that preferentially couple to GS STIMULATORY G-PROTEINS resulting in increased intracellular CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the receptor exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A definition: A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.
Alpha-2A-Adrenergic Receptor definition: Alpha-2A Adrenergic Receptor (450 aa, 49 kD) is a cell motility protein that is encoded by the human ADRA2A gene and has roles in actin cytoskeletal organization, cell motility, regulation of cell proliferation and signal transduction.
Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2C definition: A serotonin receptor subtype found primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the CHOROID PLEXUS. This receptor subtype is believed to mediate the anorectic action of SEROTONIN, while selective antagonists of the 5-HT2C receptor appear to induce ANXIETY. Several isoforms of this receptor subtype exist, due to adenine deaminase editing of the receptor mRNA.
Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1D definition: A serotonin receptor subtype that is localized to the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; PUTAMEN; the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS; the HIPPOCAMPUS, and the RAPHE NUCLEI. It plays a role as a terminal autoreceptor that regulates the rate of SEROTONIN release from nerve endings. This serotonin receptor subtype is closely related to and has similar drug binding properties as the 5-HT1B RECEPTOR, but is expressed at low levels. It is particularly sensitive to the agonist SUMATRIPTAN and may be involved in mediating the drug's antimigrane effect.
Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1B definition: A serotonin receptor subtype found at high levels in the BASAL GANGLIA and the frontal cortex. It plays a role as a terminal autoreceptor that regulates the rate of SEROTONIN release from nerve endings. This serotonin receptor subtype is closely related to and has similar drug binding properties as the 5-HT1D RECEPTOR. It is particularly sensitive to the agonist SUMATRIPTAN and may be involved in mediating the drug's antimigraine effect.
receptor definition: A molecule inside or on the surface of a cell that binds to a specific substance and causes a specific physiologic effect in the cell.
receptor definition: diverse family of binding proteins which mediate the biological effects of regulatory molecules such as hormones; many are intrinsic membrane proteins; others (such as the steroid receptors) are cytoplasmic carriers; postcoordinate this term with specific ligand terms.
Receptor definition: A receptor is a protein located on the cell surface, or in the cytoplasm, that binds to a specific signaling factor, such as a hormone, antigen, or neurotransmitter, causing a conformational and functional change in the receptor molecule. The ligand-bound receptor then alters its interaction with target molecules, which leads to changes in cellular physiology through modification of the activity of one or more signal transduction pathways.
Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT1 definition: A subclass of G-protein coupled SEROTONIN receptors that couple preferentially to GI-GO G-PROTEINS resulting in decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP levels.
adrenoceptor activity definition: Combining with epinephrine or norepinephrine to initiate a change in cell activity. [GOC:mah, IUPHAR_GPCR:1274]
serotonin receptor activity definition: Combining with the biogenic amine serotonin, a neurotransmitter and hormone found in vertebrates, invertebrates and plants, to initiate a change in cell activity. [GOC:ai, http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/]
ADRA1A Gene definition: This gene plays a regulatory role in the growth and proliferation of several cell types.
ADRA1B Gene definition: This gene is involved in the induction of neoplastic transformation and receptor signaling.
ADRA2A Gene definition: This gene plays a role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release from nerves and neurons in the central nervous system.
ADRA2B Gene definition: This gene is involved in transcriptional regulation and G protein-coupled receptor signal transduction.
INSRR Gene definition: This gene is thought to play a role in insulin regulation; however, the exact function is not known.
NR3C2 Gene definition: This gene is involved in transcriptional regulation and signal transduction.
Receptors, Adiponectin definition: Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.
receptor definition: Récepteur.
Rezipient definition: [1] Linguistik: Hörer/ Hörerin oder Leser/Leserin (meist in der Fachsprache der Linguistik für Empfänger einer Nachricht vergewendet) [2] Linguistik: speziell in der Kasusgrammatik Begriff für die semantische Rolle desjenigen, der Nutzen oder Schaden von einer Handlung hat. [3] Physik: Glasbehälter zur Herstellung eines Vakuums
Rezeptor definition: [1] Biologie, Physiologie: Struktur zur Wahrnehmung von Veränderungen, genauer :[a] Protein, welches Veränderungen (beispielsweise die Veränderung der chemischen Konzentration eines bestimmten Stoffes) im Umfeld einer Zelle wahrnimmt :[b] Neurobiologie: Sensor, Sinneszelle, welche exogene physikalische Reize in neuronale Information umwandelt
Empfänger definition: [1] jemand, der etwas empfängt (=bekommt; erhält; entgegennimmt); Person die, etwas in Empfang nimmt [2] Gerät, das Signale empfängt
récepteur definition: Organe d’une machine transformant le mode d’action des forces mises en œuvre, de manière à pouvoir les utiliser.
receptor definition: Celui qui a repris, qui a recouvré.
receptor definition: Receleur.