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C5a definition: Smaller fragment formed when C5 convertase splits C5 into C5a and C5b. C5a is a 74-amino acid peptide that includes a carboxy-terminal arginine crucial for its spasmogenic activity and a carbohydrate moiety. Initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the membrane attack complex. C5a is the most potent anaphylatoxin, mediating immediate hypersensitivity. C5a is also chemotactic for neutrophils and monocytes.
Complement C5a definition: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.
DNA, Recombinant definition: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
recombinant DNA definition: DNA artificially constructed by combining genes from different organisms or by cloning chemically altered DNA, usually for the purpose of genetic manipulation.
Recombinant DNA definition: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources usually for the purpose of genetic manipulation.
luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone definition: LH-RH. A hormone that stimulates the production of sex hormones in men and women.
luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone definition: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. A hormone that stimulates the production of sex hormones in men and women.
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone definition: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
gonadotropin releasing factor definition: decapeptide hormone released by the hypothalamus which stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland.
Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone definition: Specifically expressed in hypothalamic neurons as a preproprotein, Gonadotropin Releasing Hormones (GnRH Family) are secreted into the median eminence capillary plexus, bind to receptors on anterior pituitary gonadotrophs, and stimulate release of LHRH and FSH gonadotropins to control female reproduction. (NCI)
Recombinant Gonadorelin definition: A synthetic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) identical to or similar to the endogenous hormone. Synthesized in and secreted by the hypothalamus, gonadorelin binds to transmembrane LHRH receptors on pituitary gonadotrophic cells, thereby stimulating synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins. Continuous administration of gonadorelin desensitizes the gonadotrophic cells, a negative feedback effect. This agent can be used in treatment of hypothalamic amenorrhea and evaluation of hypothalamic/pituitary function.
Tissue Plasminogen Activator definition: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.
recombinant tissue plasminogen activator definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to endogenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). tPA is a serine protease which converts plasminogen to plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme. Upon administration, recombinant tPA increases plasmin enzymatic activity, resulting in hyperfibrinolysis and potential dissolution of a thrombus or embolism. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42033&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42033&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C39607" NCI Thesaurus)
Alteplase definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to endogenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). tPA is a serine protease which converts plasminogen to plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme. Upon administration, recombinant tPA increases plasmin enzymatic activity, resulting in hyperfibrinolysis and potential dissolution of a thrombus or embolism. (NCI05)
Tissue Plasminogen Activator definition: Tissue Plasminogen Activator isoforms 1 (562-aa, 63-kD), 2 (291-aa, frameshifted with distinct C-terminus), and 3 (516-aa, deleted Ex4) are encoded by human PLAT Gene (Peptidase S1 Family). EGF-like, fibronectin I, and kringle domains mediate fibrin, LRP1, annexin II, and cytokeratin 8 binding. TPA also binds to laminin, fibronectin, and mannose receptor. Inhibited by PAI-1, serine protease TPA is widely expressed as an active single chain, then secreted, and cleaved by plasmin, tissue kallikrein, or factor XA to a fully active disulfide linked A/B-protein; N-heavy chain and C-light chain. Important in cell migration and tissue remodeling, TPA activates (increased by fibrin or heparin) plasminogen to fibrinolytic plasmin conversion by hydrolyzing a specific Arg-Val bond. Altered activity causes hyper- or hypofibrinolysis. (from LocusLink, Swiss-Prot, OMIM, and NCI)
Tissue Plasminogen Activator definition: Tissue plasminogen activator (PLAT) is a serine protease that activates the proenzyme plasminogen to plasmin, which in turn is responsible for fibrinolytic activity. PLAT is synthesized in vascular endothelial cells as a single polypeptide chain. Proteolytic cleavage of the single chain protein at a centrally located arginine-isoleucine bond by plasmin gives rise to a 2-chain disulfide-linked form, composed of the N-terminally derived heavy chain and the C-terminal light chain.
Tissue Plasminogen Activator definition: A secreted serine protease which converts the proenzyme plasminogen to plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme. Tissue-type plasminogen activator is synthesized as a single chain which is cleaved by plasmin to a two chain disulfide linked protein. This enzyme plays a role in cell migration and tissue remodeling. Increased enzymatic activity causes hyperfibrinolysis, which manifests as excessive bleeding; decreased activity leads to hypofibrinolysis which can result in thrombosis or embolism. (from LocusLink)
Recombinant Proteins definition: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
recombinant protein definition: peptides or proteins produced by genes which have been artificially inserted into living cells or cell-free expression systems; index with or without RECOMBINANT DNA and the following RTs as needed.
Recombinant Protein definition: Proteins produced by genes or recombinant DNA that has been artificially engineered and inserted into a heterologous host. Recombinant proteins are used extensively by investigators of disease pathways to identify protein targets for potential drug therapies.
Erythropoietin, Recombinant definition: ERYTHROPOIETIN prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Recombinant Erythropoietin definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous glycoprotein erythropoietin (Epo). Epo promotes the differentiation and maturation of hematopoietic progenitors into erythrocytes; is a mitogen and a chemoattractant for endothelial cells; stimulates activated and differentiated B-cells and enhances B-cell immunoglobulin production and proliferation; and is hypoxia-inducible. (NCI04)
Somatropin definition: A recombinant form of endogenous human growth hormone (GH), a polypeptide produced by the anterior lobe of the human pituitary gland. GH exhibits growth-promoting effects and metabolic effects on carbohydrate, fat, protein and bone metabolism. GH stimulates protein synthesis and the uptake of amino acids into cells, and induces lipolysis in adipose tissues. The secretion of GH increases with sexual maturation and then declines steadily.
Growth Hormone, Recombinant definition: Growth hormone (somatotropin) can be synthesized with methods of recombinant DNA technology. Since action of GH is highly species-specific, recombinant growth hormones of several species (including humans, cows, and pigs) have been developed. They have been used to stimulate growth.
Colony-Stimulating Factors, Recombinant definition: COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Recombinant Colony Stimulating Factor definition: Glycoprotein growth factors produced by monocytes, macrophages, or activated lymphocytes that stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells and differentiation of stem cells into colonies of granulocytes, monocytes, or macrophages. These substances act in either paracrine or autocrine fashion on marrow cells, appear to act synergistically in complex and poorly understood ways. Each appears to exert actions on several lines of progenitor cells and to influence end cell function. Treatment with colony-stimulating factors (CSF) can help the blood-forming tissue recover from the effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. These factors include interleukin-3 (IL-3), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).
Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor, Recombinant definition: Granulocyte colony stimulating factors prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor definition: G-CSF. A colony-stimulating factor that stimulates the production of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell). It is a cytokine that belongs to the family of drugs called hematopoietic (blood-forming) agents. Also called filgrastim.
Recombinant Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Secreted by monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils and other cells after activation, G-CSF stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells committed to the neutrophil/ granulocyte lineage. (NCI04)
Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factors, Recombinant definition: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
GM-CSF definition: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. A colony-stimulating factor that stimulates the production of white blood cells, especially granulocytes and macrophages, and cells (in the bone marrow) that are precursors of platelets. It is a cytokine that belongs to the family of drugs called hematopoietic (blood-forming) agents. Also called sargramostim.
Recombinant Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous glycoprotein cytokine growth factor granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Therapeutic GM-CSF induces the clonal expansion and differentiation of progenitor blood cells and stimulates the cytotoxicity of monocytes and neutrophils, thereby restoring immune function and host antitumor immune responses and stimulating engraftment of transplanted bone marrow tissue. (NCI04)
interleukin-11 definition: (in-ter-LOO-kin) IL-11. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to infection and disease) that stimulates immune response and may reduce toxicity to the gastrointestinal system resulting from cancer therapy. These substances are normally produced by the body. They are also made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases. Also called oprelvekin.
Oprelvekin definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin 11 (IL-11). Secreted by bone marrow stromal cells and a number of mesenchymal cells, IL-11 binds to and activates its cell-surface receptor, promoting primary and secondary immune responses, modulating antigen-specific antibody reactions, and preventing apoptotic cell death. This agent also stimulates the T-cell-dependent development of IgG-secreting B-cells in spleen cell cultures and may be an important regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis. (NCI04)
lepirudin definition: A drug that inhibits blood clotting. It is being studied in cancer treatment.
lepirudin definition: A recombinant hirudin, a polypeptide naturally produced by the leech Hirudo medicinalis, derived from yeast cells and a highly specific inhibitor of thrombin. Lepirudin directly binds to thrombin, thereby inactivating the thrombogenic activity of thrombin. This anticoagulant produces dose-dependent increases in activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Its action is independent of antithrombin III and it is not inhibited by platelet factor 4. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43356&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43356&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C1839" NCI Thesaurus)
Lepirudin definition: A yeast cell-derived recombinant polypeptide related to the naturally occurring, leech-derived anticoagulant hirudin. Lepirudin directly binds to and inactivates thrombin, producing dose-dependent increases in the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT). The mechanism of action of this agent is independent of antithrombin III and is not inhibited by platelet factor 4. Natural hirudin, a family of highly homologous isopolypeptides, is produced in trace amounts by the leech Hirudo medicinalis.
Recombinant Glucagon definition: The recombinant form of the endogenous polypeptide hormone Glucagon consisting of 29 amino acids responsible for the release of stored glucose, causing increased blood glucose levels. Clinical Use: Diagnostic Aid for Imaging Studies and Hypoglycemia.
rF-B7.1 vaccine definition: A cancer vaccine comprised of a recombinant fowlpox virus vector encoding the stimulatory molecule transgene B7-1. Recombinant fowlpox-B7.1 (rF-B7.1) vaccine may enhance antigen presentation and activate antitumoral cytotoxic T-cells. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38542&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38542&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C2666" NCI Thesaurus)
Recombinant Fowlpox-B7.1 Vaccine definition: A cancer vaccine comprised of a recombinant fowlpox virus vector encoding the stimulatory molecule transgene B7-1. Recombinant fowlpox-B7.1 vaccine may enhance antigen presentation and activate antitumoral cytotoxic T-cells. (NCI04)
Recombinant Antibody definition: Antibodies produced by recombinant DNA techniques.
Recombinant ENA-78 definition: Epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78. A 78 amino acid member of the CXC family of chemokines, produced and secreted upon stimulation by interleukin 1 beta or tumor necrosis factor alpha. Stimulates chemotactic migration of neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and fibroblasts.
R7 Virus definition: This virus is a spontaneous mutant of SV7, a molecular clone of MoMuSV124. Like SV7, R7 induces subcutaneous fibrosarcomas, spleen tumors, and mesentery tumors infiltrated by proliferating vessels lined by transformed endothelial cells. However, it also induces brain lesions. (from Virology. 1997 Sep 15;236(1):213-8)
Recombinant Adenovirus-p53 definition: A genetically-engineered adenovirus that contains the gene that encodes the human tumor-suppressor protein p53 with potential antineoplastic activity. Recombinant adenovirus-p53 SCH-58500 delivers p53 into tumor cells, which may result in p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Recombinant Amphiregulin definition: A recombinant form of amphiregulin, a member of the heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF) family. Endogenous amphiregulin is an autocrine growth factor, and binds to the EGF receptor. Overexpressed in several cancer cell types, endogenous amphiregulin may contribute to tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. (NCI04)
Recombinant Angiogenin definition: A 14kD non-glycosylated human derived angiogenesis factor, which has the ability to induce neovascularisation with a unique ribonucleolytic activity. (NCI)
Recombinant Betacellulin definition: A recombinant form of the endogenous Betacellulin, a member of the Epidermal Growth Factor family that is expressed primarily in the pancreas and induces differentiation of a pancreatic acinar cell line.
Recombinant Fowlpox-gp100p209 definition: A viral vaccine comprised of a recombinant fowlpox vector construct encoding a modified epitope of the melanoma antigen glycoprotein 100 (gp100), ES-2092M(gp100), containing an endoplasmic reticulum signal sequence targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum apparatus. Vaccination with recombinant fowlpox-gp100p209 vaccine may stimulate the host immune system more efficiently to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against tumor cells expressing the gp100 antigen.
Recombinant Haplotype definition: A haplotype is the order of gene alleles present on a particular chromosome. Thus, a recombinant haplotype exists when a particular haplotype does not match those of either parent.
Recombinant Thymopoietin definition: Recombinant form of endogenous thymopoietin, a thymic hormone.
Recombinant Leukoregulin definition: A formulated therapeutic analog of the endogenous lymphokine leukoregulin with potential antineoplastic activity. Leukoregulin displays direct and indirect cytotoxicity through tumor cell lysis and enhancing tumor cell susceptibility to natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. This agent enhances membrane permeability and decreases p-glycoprotein expression, thereby promoting cytotoxic drug uptake into tumor cells. Leukoregulin also induces the synthesis of collagenase and hyaluronan, expression and secretion of interleukin-8, and upregulates stromelysin-1 gene expression in human fibroblasts, thereby regulating extracellular matrix degradation. (NCI04)
Recombinant Activin definition: Dimeric growth factors of the TGF family with effects on a range of cell types in addition to promoting FSH release in gonadal sites. Composed of two of the subunits of inhibin, the isoforms A and B.
Recombinant I309 definition: A recombinant form of human I-309, an inflammatory CXC cytokine secreted by activated T lymphocytes that appears to be an inducer of angiogenesis.
Recombinant Interleukin-16 definition: A recombinant chemokine of human lymphotactin which is produced by activated progenitor T cells and characterized by specific chemotactic activity for lymphocytes. (NCI)
Recombinant Gonadotropin definition: A class of formulated therapeutic analogs of the endogenous gonadotropin that stimulates or promotes the function of the gonads. Therapeutic gonadotropins are derived from animal or recombinant sources. Gonadotropins include follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin. These agents stimulate discrete cellular components of the gonads, exerting effects in both males and females. (NCI04)
Recombinant Inhibin definition: Recombinant therapeutic agents chemically identical to or similar to endogenous glycoproteins which inhibit pituitary production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Inhibin has two isoforms: inhibin A and B, both are dimmers of the same alpha subunit and different beta subunits. A member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, inhibins are secreted by the gonads and contribute to the control of gametogenesis, embryonic and fetal development and hematopoiesis.
IL-2 definition: Interleukin-2. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to disease) that enhances the ability of the immune system to kill tumor cells and may interfere with blood flow to the tumor. These substances are normally produced by the body. Aldesleukin is IL-2 that is made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
Recombinant Interleukin-2 definition: Any recombinant analog of endogenous interleukin-2 (IL-2), a cytokine involved in intercellular communication related to cell differentiation, proliferation, inflammation, hematopoiesis, neuronal functions, and release of hormones. IL-2 binds to and activates specific receptors, triggering expression of specific genes, and may induce T cell-mediated tumor regression in some tumor types.
Recombinant Interleukin-1 definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). Produced mainly by monocytes, endogenous IL-1 plays a role in hematopoiesis, is a potent stimulator of T-cell activity, may promote or inhibit tumor growth, depending on tumor type. (NCI04)
Recombinant Interleukin-1-beta definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous protein cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1)-beta. Produced by monocytes and activated macrophages, endogenous mature IL-1 is generated through proteolytic cleavage by proteases such as IL-1-beta converting enzyme (ICE). This agent promotes angiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation, and neutrophil chemotaxis; it also regulates the functions of lymphocytes and epithelial cells and is involved in the 'acute phase response' to infection. (NCI04)
Recombinant Neurotrophic Factor definition: Recombinant form of endogenous neurotrophic factors, a family of polypeptide growth factors produced by peripheral target tissues as well as the nervous system. Neurotrophic factors are critical to neuronal growth, regeneration, survival, and differentiation. (NCI)
Recombinant Fractalkine definition: A pro-inflammatory delta chemokine with potential antineoplastic activity. Fractalkine induces the adhesion and migration of T lymphocytes, monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. In lymphomas, this agent may promote cell-mediated lympholysis by recruiting activated NK cells. (NCI04)
Recombinant Interferon definition: One of a group of recombinant therapeutic glycoprotein cytokines with antiviral, anti-proliferative, and immunomodulating activities. Interferons bind to specific cell-surface receptors, leading to the transcription and translation of genes with interferon-specific response elements (ISREs). The resultant proteins mediate many complex effects, ultimately leading to inhibition of viral protein synthesis and cellular growth, alteration of cellular differentiation, interference with oncogene expression, activation of natural killer cells, alteration of cell surface antigen expression, and augmentation of lymphocyte and macrophage cytotoxicity. The production of endogenous interferons is induced in response to foreign agents such as bacteria, viruses and parasites and to tumor cells.
interleukin-4 definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). Produced primarily by activated T-cells, IL-4 binds to and activates its cell-surface receptor, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of activated B-cells and enhancing their ability to present antigens to T-cells. As a potential immunotherapeutic agent, recombinant IL-4 also augments the effects of other cytokines on dendritic cells (DC), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39324&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39324&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C589" NCI Thesaurus)
Recombinant Interleukin-4 definition: A recombinant agent chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). Produced primarily by activated T-cells, IL-4 binds to and activates its cell-surface receptor, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of activated B-cells and enhancing their ability to present antigens to T-cells. As a potential immunotherapeutic agent, recombinant IL-4 also augments the effects of other cytokines on dendritic cells (DC), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL).
Recombinant Interleukin 10 definition: A recombinant cytokine chemically identical to or similar to interleukin-10 (IL-10) secreted by certain leukocytes with immunomodulatory activities. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, capable of inhibiting synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as Interferon-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF. However, it also has stimulatory effects on certain T cells, mast cells, and B cells, as well as inducing expression of class II major histocompatibility complex.
Recombinant Interleukin-9 definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin-9 (IL-9). Produced by CD4+ lymphocytes, IL-9 stimulates the proliferation of T-helper cells and the growth of mast cells and megakaryoblasts. This agent also enhances the growth of some leukemia cell lines and may play a role in the pathogenesis of Hodgkin's disease and large cell anaplastic lymphoma. (NCI04)
Recombinant Interleukin-13 definition: The recombinant analogue of an endogenous cytokine interleukin 13 with potential antineoplastic activity. Produced by lymphocytes and exhibiting a variety of functions, interleukin-13 (therapeutic) inhibits DNA synthesis and regulates inflammatory and immune responses. In animal models, this agent has been shown to kill tumor cells both directly and indirectly by activating the host immune system at the tumor site. (NCI04)
Recombinant RANTES definition: A member of the IL-8 superfamily of cytokines and released from platelets and activated T-cells, RANTES is a selective chemoattractant for eosinophils, monocytes, and T-lymphocytes. RANTES is one of the ligands for chemokine receptor CCR5. RANTES expression in peripheral lymphocytes increases exponentially following mitogenic or antigenic stimulation. RANTES is one of the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8-positive T-cells.
Recombinant Interleukin-14 definition: A recombinant peptide, which is chemically identical or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin-14 (IL-14). The cytokine inhibits immunoglobulin secretion and selectively expands activated B-cell subpopulations. An IL-14 receptor is found on activated B-cells, but not in resting B-cells. This agent is unrelated to other cytokines but has homology with complement factor Bb. Autocrine or paracrine production of IL-14 may play a significant role in the rapid proliferation of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL-B). Interrupting this pathway could be a useful goal of therapy for patients resistant to conventional chemotherapy.
Recombinant Interleukin-15 definition: A recombinant agent, which is chemically identical or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15). IL-15 regulates T and natural killer cell activation and proliferation. This cytokine induces activation of transcription activators STAT3, STAT5, and STAT6 via JAK kinases signal transduction pathways in mast cells, T cells, and dendritic epidermal T cells. IL-15 and IL-2 share many biological activities, including binding to common hematopoietin receptor subunits, and thus negatively regulate each other's activity.
Recombinant Interleukin-17 definition: A recombinant agent, which is chemically identical or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17). IL-17 is produced by cytotoxic T cells and stimulates stromal cells to produce pro-inflammatory and hematopoietic cytokines. This cytokine enhances expression of IL-6, IL-8, and ICAM-1 in fibroblasts and appears to induce osteoclastogenesis.
Recombinant Heregulin definition: A growth factor of the EGF family that induces growth and differentiation of epithelial, glial and muscle cells in culture. It binds the receptor erbB3 which will heterodimerize with HER-2/erbB2.
recombinant interleukin-1-alpha definition: A recombinant agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous protein cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). The IL-1 precursor is produced by monocytes, activated macrophages, and other cell types; mature IL-1 is generated by proteolytic cleavage by proteases such as IL-1-beta converting enzyme (ICE). This agent enhances T cell proliferation and B cell growth and differentiation and induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=523327&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=523327&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C1754" NCI Thesaurus)
Recombinant Interleukin-1-alpha definition: A recombinant agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous protein cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). The IL-1 precursor is produced by monocytes, activated macrophages, and other cell types; mature IL-1 is generated by proteolytic cleavage by proteases such as IL-1-beta converting enzyme (ICE). This agent enhances T cell proliferation and B cell growth and differentiation and induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. (NCI04)
Recombinant Corticotropin definition: A recombinant peptide hormone chemically identical to or similar to human polypeptide hormone corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH). Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, circulating ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete adrenocortical steroids, especially cortisone, which elevate blood pressure in response to stress. With normally functioning adrenal glands, recombinant corticotropin could be used to achieve pharmacologic effects similar to those from cortisone administration.
cytokines definition: A class of substances that are produced by cells of the immune system and can affect the immune response. Cytokines can also be produced in the laboratory by recombinant DNA technology and given to people to affect immune responses.
Recombinant Pleiotrophin definition: A recombinant form of the heparin-binding cytokine pleiotrophin. Developmentally regulated, pleiotrophin functions as a growth factor during embryogenesis and the neonatal period, contributing to trophoblast formation, organ development, bone formation, and early brain development by inducing the differentiation and proliferation of neuronal tissue. Expressed in certain tumor cell types, this agent may stimulate tumor cell growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. (NCI04)
interleukin-12 definition: (in-ter-LOO-kin) IL-12. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to infection and disease) that enhances the ability of the immune system to kill tumor cells and may interfere with blood flow to the tumor. These substances are normally produced by the body. They are also made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
Recombinant Interleukin-12 definition: A recombinant form of the endogenous heterodimeric cytokine interleukin-12 with potential antineoplastic activity. Recombinant interleukin-12 binds to and activates its cell-surface receptor, stimulating the production of interferon-gamma (IFN) which, in turn, induces IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and so inhibits tumor angiogenesis. (NCI04)
Recombinant CD40-Ligand definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to CD40-ligand. CD40-ligand, also known as CD40L/TRAP and CD154, is a type II membrane protein which binds to CD40, a cell surface receptor that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family; CD40 is expressed on B lymphocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells (DC), hematopoietic progenitors, endothelial cells and epithelial cells. Recombinant CD40-ligand may be used to activate DC ex vivo via CD40 binding; CD40-ligand-activated DC may provide or augment a protective antitumor immunity when administered in dendritic cell cancer vaccines. (NCI04)
Recombinant Eotaxin definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous chemokine eotaxin, a member of the C-C cytokine family which is chemotactic for eosinophils. The early increase in eotaxin paralleled eosinophil infiltration in the asthmatic lung tissue in animal models hinted a potential role for eotaxin in immunotherapy.
Recombinant Chemokine definition: Formulated therapeutic analogs of one of a number of endogenous small polypeptide cytokines with potential antineoplastic activity. Synthesized by macrophages, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells, chemokines are released in the presence of infection or physical tissue damage, and act as chemoattractants to recruit macrophages, neutrophils, and T cells from the blood to sites of infection or damage. These agents may regulate tumor growth by modulating tumor-associated angiogenesis and metastasis and can either promote or retard tumor growth. (NCI04)
Recombinant Inhibin A definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to an endogenous glycoprotein which inhibits pituitary production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Produced and secreted by the testis or ovarian follicle, endogenous inhibin A contributes to the control of gametogenesis, embryonic and fetal development, and hematopoiesis and enhances LH-stimulated androgen secretion by human thecal cells. (NCI04)
Recombinant Thyroglobulin definition: A recombinant form of thyroglobulin identical to or similar to the endogenous iodine-containing glycoprotein. Thyroglobulin is synthesized in the thyroid follicular cell, and is the precursor of thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Thyroglobulin levels can serve as a tumor marker for monitoring the status of differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
Recombinant Interleukin-18 definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18). Produced primarily by macrophages, IL-18 induces the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and enhances the activity of natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). As a potential immunotherapeutic agent, IL-18 displays antitumor effects in vitro and in animal models. (NCI04)
Recombinant Interleukin-3 definition: A recombinant form of interleukin-3, a cytokine produced by activated T-cells and mast cells involved in intercellular communication, hematopoiesis, and inflammation. IL-3 binds and activates specific receptors on hematopoietic cells and in the nervous system, triggering expression of specific genes via the Ras signaling pathway and through Jak2 activation. This agent stimulates the proliferation of pluripotent hematopoietic progenitor cells.
Recombinant Interleukin-3 definition: A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to disease) that enhances the immune system's ability to fight tumor cells. These substances are normally produced by the body. They are also made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
Recombinant Interleukin-5 definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin-5 (IL-5). Produced by T cells, IL-5 stimulates the growth, differentiation, and activation of eosinophils, and promotes the conversion of B-cells into antibody- producing cells. (NCI04)
IL-6 definition: Interleukin-6. A type of biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to infection and disease). These substances are normally produced by the body, but they can also be made in the laboratory.
Recombinant Interleukin-6 definition: A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) with antiapoptotic, proinflammatory, antiinflammatory, proproliferative and proangiogenic activities. IL-6 binds to its receptor (IL-6R), activating a receptor-CD130 receptor complex; the CD130 portion of the complex is a signal transduction protein that activates JAK kinases and Ras-mediated signaling pathways, which in turn activate downstream signaling pathways, resulting in the activation of various transcription factors (STAT, ELK-1, NF-IL-6, etc.) and gene transcription. The physiological effects of IL-6 are complex and varied and include hematopoietic, pyrogenic and thermogenic, proinflammatory, antiinflammatory, proproliferative (anti-apoptotic), and angiogenic effects.
recombinant interleukin-7 definition: A recombinant protein which is chemically identical to or similar to endogenous interleukin-7 (IL-7) with hematopoietic and immunopotentiating properties. Produced by bone marrow, thymic stromal, and spleen cells, the cytokine interleukin-7 is a hematopoietic growth factor for progenitor B cells and T cells and stimulates proliferation and differentiation of mature T-cells and natural killer cells. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=305941&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=305941&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C592" NCI Thesaurus)
Recombinant Interleukin-7 definition: A recombinant protein which is chemically identical to or similar to endogenous interleukin-7 (IL-7) with hematopoietic and immunopotentiating properties. Produced by bone marrow, thymic stromal, and spleen cells, the cytokine interleukin-7 is a hematopoietic growth factor for progenitor B cells and T cells and stimulates proliferation and differentiation of mature T-cells and Natural Killer cells. (NCI05)
Therapeutic Melatonin definition: A therapeutic chemically synthesized form of the pineal indole melatonin with antioxidant properties. The pineal synthesis and secretion of melatonin, a serotonin-derived neurohormone, is dependent on beta-adrenergic receptor function. Melatonin is involved in numerous biological functions including circadian rhythm, sleep, the stress response, aging, and immunity.
Recombinant Thymosin definition: A recombinant form of a polypeptide chemically identical to or similar to the hormone secreted by the thymus gland. Thymosin is generally known to have functions in the preprocessing of T cells and the development of B cells to plasma cells to produce antibodies. In particular, the predominant form of thymosin, beta 4 thymosin, is the principal actin-sequestering protein that plays an important role in functions that involve actin molecules, such as maintenance of cell shape, cytoplasmic organization, cell movement, and cell division.
Recombinant Interleukin definition: Formulated therapeutic analogs of one of a number of endogenous cytokine interleukins. Produced by T cells, macrophages, and other cells, interleukins bind to a specific surface receptor on immunohematopoietic cells, thereby inducing a multitude of biologic effects including stimulation of growth, differentiation, and proliferation of lymphocytes and eosinophils; activation of lymphocytes and macrophages; enhancement of mast cell activity; activation of the acute phase response; and stimulation of hematopoiesis. Some interleukins may enhance the host's immune response to malignant cells by stimulating lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), which are capable of lysing some tumor cells. (NCI04)
Recombinant Lymphokine definition: A type of cytokine produced by lymphocytes for therapeutic use involving cellular immunity.
Recombinant Interleukin-8 definition: A member of the CXC chemokine family. This chemokine is one of the major mediators of the inflammatory response. This chemokine is secreted by several cell types including monocytes, macrophages, T-lymphocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes. It functions as a chemoattractant, and is also a potent angiogenic factor. (from LocusLink)
Therapeutic Insulin definition: A synthetically- or animal-derived form of insulin used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Therapeutic insulin is formulated to be short-, intermediate- and long-acting in order to individualize an insulin regimen according to individual differences in glucose and insulin metabolism. Long-acting insulins are administered to complement short-acting insulins administered at mealtimes. These agents may be derived from porcine, bovine or recombinant sources. Endogenous human insulin, a pancreatic hormone composed of two polypeptide chains, is important for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats; it has anabolic effects on many types of tissues. (NCI04)
Recombinant Oxytocin definition: A synthetic cyclic peptide form of the naturally occurring posterior pituitary hormone oxytocin. Oxytocin binds to oxytocin receptors in the uterine myometrium, which triggers the G-protein coupled receptor signal transduction cascade that causes increased intracellular calcium concentrations. Increased calcium concentration levels activate myosin light chain kinase which, in turn, induces the formation of the contractile protein actomyosin. This stimulates uterine smooth muscle contractions. This agent also stimulates smooth muscles in the mammary glands, thereby causing lactation.
calcitonin definition: A hormone formed by the C cells of the thyroid gland. It helps maintain a healthy level of calcium in the blood. When the calcium level is too high, calcitonin lowers it.
endostatin definition: A drug that is being studied for its ability to prevent the growth of new blood vessels into a solid tumor. Endostatin belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors.
Recombinant Human Endostatin definition: A recombinant human proteolytic fragment of the C-terminal end of type XVIII collagen. Endostatin induces microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis and inhibits endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis, which may result in a reduction in tumor burden. This agent also may decrease hepatic metastasis by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-dependent cell attachment to the hepatic microvasculature. (NCI04)
recombinant human endostatin definition: A recombinant human proteolytic fragment of the C-terminal end of type XVIII collagen. Endostatin induces microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis and inhibits endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis, which may result in a reduction in tumor burden. This agent also may decrease hepatic metastasis by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-dependent cell attachment to the hepatic microvasculature. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=459758&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=459758&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C45515" NCI Thesaurus)
Recombinant Lymphotactin definition: A recombinant chemokine of human lymphotactin which is produced by activated progenitor T cells and characterized by specific chemotactic activity for lymphocytes. (NCI)
Velafermin definition: A recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-20 (rhFGF-20) protein with pro-proliferative activity. Velafermin stimulates DNA synthesis and cell proliferation, specifically promoting epithelial and mesenchymal cell proliferation, and may prevent radiation or chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.
velafermin definition: A recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-20 (rhFGF-20) protein with pro-proliferative activity. Velafermin stimulates DNA synthesis and cell proliferation, specifically promoting epithelial and mesenchymal cell proliferation, and may prevent radiation or chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=436982&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=436982&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C48425" NCI Thesaurus)
Recombinant Somatostatin definition: A recombinant peptide chemically identical or similar to endogenous somatostatin. Somatostatin is a cyclic tetradecapeptide regulating many endocrine and nervous system functions. Somatostatin inhibits release of adenohypophyseal growth hormone, thyrotropin and corticotropin, pancreatic insulin and glucagon, gastric mucosal gastrin, intestinal mucosal secretin, and renal renin by binding to specific somatostatin receptors (SSTR), which are cell surface G protein-coupled receptors expressed in a tissue-specific manner.