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Hypothalamic Hormones definition: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
hypothalamic hormone definition: hormones isolated from the hypothalamus which exercise control over other organs, primarily the pituitary gland; members include certain pituitary hormone-releasing hormones and pituitary hormone release inhibiting hormones.
Hypothalamic Hormone definition: Releasing and inhibiting hormones secreted by the neurosecretory neurons of the hypothalamus binding to the receptors of the anterior pituitary cells and modulating the release of hormones the pituitary secretes.
SYSTEM, THERMAL REGULATING definition: A thermal regulating system is an external system consisting of a device that is placed in contact with the patient and a temperature controller for the device. The system is used to regulate patient temperature.
Warming/Cooling Units, Patient definition: Units designed to regulate a patient's temperature by heating or cooling. These units usually include a central system with heating and refrigerating capabilities, controls, alarms, and some means (e.g., blankets) to deliver thermal changes to the patient. Patient warming/cooling units are used to warm patients who are hypothermic, to maintain normal body temperature during and after surgery, to cool feverish patients, or to induce hypothermia to lower metabolism (e.g., during cardiac surgery, neurosurgery).
Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone definition: Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.
MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 5 definition: A 150-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase that may play a role in the induction of APOPTOSIS. It has specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 3; MAP KINASE KINASE 4; and MAP KINASE KINASE 6.
CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein definition: An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.
GTP-Binding Protein Regulators definition: Proteins that regulate the signaling activity of GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They are divided into three categories depending upon whether they stimulate GTPase activity (GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS), inhibit release of GDP; (GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE DISSOCIATION INHIBITORS); or exchange GTP for GDP; (GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS).
CDX2 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in transcriptional initiation, embryonic axial elongation and patterning.
TRERF1 Gene definition: This gene is involved in tumorigenesis.
Homeobox Protein CDX2 definition: Caudal Type Homeo Box Transcription Factor 2, encoded by the human CDX2 gene, is a homeodomain protein. This nuclear protein is involved in the transcriptional regulation of multiple genes expressed in the intestinal epithelium. It is important in broad range of functions from early differentiation to maintenance of the intestinal epithelial lining of both the small and large intestine. Phosphorylation of Ser-60 of this protein mediates the transactivation capacity. CDX3 binds an A/T-rich sequence in the insulin promoter and stimulate its transcription. Increased CDX2 mRNA is associated with chronic atrophic gastritis and expression of CDX2 may trigger the initiation and development of intestinal metaplasia. In contrast, markedly reduced or absent CDX2 expression is noted in most large cell minimally differentiated carcinomas. (From LocusLink, Swiss-Prot, OMIM and NCI)
Dendritic Cell Pathway definition: While T cells and B cells carry out the actions of antigen-specific immune responses, antigen-presenting cells called dendritic cells are required for this to happen. The name of dendritic cells is based on their shape, with activated dendritic cells displaying long processes on their surface. When immature dendritic cells found throughout the body internalize and present antigen, they express markers that stimulate the activation of lymphocytes, and migrate to lymphocyte rich tissues like the spleen and lymph nodes to initiate immune responses. In addition to stimulating responses against antigens, dendritic cells also produce tolerance to self antigens. Dendritic cells can be derived from either myeloid or lymphoid lineages. Monocyte (myeloid) derived lineages (pDC1) stimulate Th1 cell differentiation while plasmacytoid (lymphoid) dendritic cells (pDC2) induce Th2 cell differentiation. Factors that stimulate the maturation of monocytes derived dendritic cells include GM-CSF, and IL-4. IL-3 stimulates the differentiation of pDC2 cells into DC2 cells. A variety of factors are involved in antigen-recognition and processing by immature dendritic cells and in the maturation of these cells. The transition to mature dendritic cells down-regulates the factors involved in antigen internalization, and increases the expression of MHC, costimulatory molecules involved in lymphocyte activation, adhesion molecules, and specific cytokines and chemokines. Toll-like receptors on the surface of immature dendritic cells recognize microbial components to induce dendritic cell maturation. In addition to stimulating B cell responses, dendritic cells are potent activators of T cells. IL-12 secretion by dendritic cells stimulates T cell responses, particularly differentiation of Th1 cells that produce interferon-gamma and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. While IL-4 generally stimulates Th2 differentiation, the stimulation of Th2 cell formation by DC2 cells does not appear to involve IL-4. The stimulation of Th1 and Th2 cell formation by dendritic cells appears to be balanced by counter-regulation of each pathway by the other. Interferon-gamma produced by Th1 cells blocks the further stimulation of Th1 differentiation by DC1 cells. The IL-4 produced by Th2 cells kills dendritic cell precursors that contribute to Th2 cell creation. Direct interactions between T cells and dendritic cells are enhanced through the expression of adhesion molecules and costimulatory receptors CD80 and CD86 expressed by mature dendritic cells activate T cells in concert with the recognition of antigen/MHC by the T cell receptor. The central role of dendritic cells as modulators of immune responses makes them an important focus of studies about autoimmune disease, transplant rejection, allergies, responses to infections, and other alterations of the immune response. (BioCarta)
PHEX Phosphate Regulating Neutral Endopeptidase definition: A membrane-bound metalloendopeptidase that may play a role in the degradation or activation of a variety of PEPTIDE HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of this protein are a cause of HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS, X-LINKED DOMINANT.
CDX2 wt Allele definition: Human CDX2 wild-type allele is located in the vicinity of 13q12.3 and is approximately 7 kb in length. This allele, which encodes homeobox protein CDX-2, plays a role in the regulation of RNA polymerase II-directed transcription.
immune response-regulating signal transduction definition: The cascade of processes by which a signal interacts with a receptor, causing a change in the level or activity of a second messenger or other downstream target, and ultimately leading to the activation, perpetuation, or inhibition of an immune response. [GOC:add, ISBN:0781735149 "Fundamental Immunology", PMID:15771571]