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Definition
 
enEnglish
Cell Division definition: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
cell division definition: The process resulting in the physical partitioning and separation of a cell into daughter cells. [GOC:go_curators]
Cell Division definition: Cell Division involves the production of separate daughter cells from a precursor cell by division of the nucleus (mitosis) in eukaryotes and division of the cytoplasm (cytokinesis).
Replicon definition: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
replicon definition: a unit of DNA that contains a DNA replication origin and a termination point and is capable of self-replication.
Virus Replication definition: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
viral replication definition: OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete). [GOC:go_curators]
virus replication definition: process of forming progeny virus from input virus; involves expression and replication of viral genomic nucleic acid and the assembly of progeny virus particles.
Replication Protein A definition: A single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is found in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. It is required for DNA REPLICATION; DNA REPAIR; and GENETIC RECOMBINATION.
Replication Origin definition: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Origin of Replication definition: A DNA sequence necessary and sufficient for initiation of DNA replication.
DNA replication origin definition: position along a molecule at which DNA replication begins.
DNA Replication definition: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
DNA replication definition: process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated in vivo, or studies of the natural process in vitro; for artificial synthesis, see NUCLEIC ACID CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS and its narrower terms.
DNA replication definition: The process whereby new strands of DNA are synthesized. The template for replication can either be an existing DNA molecule or RNA. [ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
DNA Replication definition: The process by which the two strands of a DNA double helix separate, allowing each strand to act as a template for the synthesis of a complementary strand by specific base pairing. Includes autonomous but not virus replication.
DNA Synthesis definition: DNA Synthesis is the polymeric linkage of deoxyribose moieties (with adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine side chains) by phosphate groups attached to their 5-prime and 3-prime sugar hydroxyls.
DNA Replication Fork definition: DNA replication is a process that allows two new double helixes of DNA to be created from one double helix. During replication, Y-shaped regions of replicating DNA molecules are mobilized, where the enzymes replicating a DNA molecule bind to an untwisted, single DNA strand. This Y-shaped region is referred to as a replication fork. Bacteria and viruses only process one replication fork at a time, while eukaryotic DNA has many replication forks moving along DNA strands at the same time.
DNA replication origin binding definition: Interacting selectively with the DNA replication origin, a unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA replication is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. [GOC:jl, http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/]
DNA replication and chromosome cycle definition: OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete). [GOC:ai]
DNA-dependent DNA replication definition: The process whereby new strands of DNA are synthesized, using parental DNA as a template for the DNA-dependent DNA polymerases that synthesize the new strands. [ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
DNA replication initiation definition: The process by which DNA replication is started; this involves the separation of a stretch of the DNA double helix, the recruitment of DNA polymerases and the initiation of polymerase action. [ISBN:071673706X, ISBN:0815316194]
Replication Initiation definition: DNA polymerases are not capable of de novo DNA synthesis and require synthesis of a primer, usually by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (primase) to begin DNA synthesis. In eukaryotic cells, the primer is synthesized by DNA polymerase alpha:primase. First, the DNA primase portion of this complex synthesizes approximately 6-10 nucleotides of RNA primer and then the DNA polymerase portion synthesizes an additional 20 nucleotides of DNA. (from MedLine 11395402)
DNA endoreduplication initiation definition: The reinitiation of DNA replication within a single cell cycle. [GOC:jl]
DNA replication termination definition: The process by which DNA replication at a replication fork ceases; occurs when the replication fork reaches a specific termination site or when two replication forks meet. [GOC:mah, PMID:10209736, PMID:12009298]
DNA strand elongation during DNA replication definition: The process by which a DNA strand is synthesized from template DNA during replication by the action of polymerases, which add nucleotides to the 3' end of the nascent DNA strand. [ISBN:071673706X, ISBN:0815316194]
DNA unwinding during replication definition: The process by which interchain hydrogen bonds between two strands of DNA are broken or 'melted', generating unpaired template strands for DNA replication. [ISBN:071673706X, ISBN:0815316194]
DNA replication proofreading definition: Correction of replication errors by DNA polymerase using a 3'-5' exonuclease activity. [GOC:ai]
DNA Replication Proofreading definition: A function of the mismatch repair (MMR) system that promotes genomic fidelity by repairing base-base mismatches, insertion-deletion loops and heterologies generated during DNA replication. This function is critically dependent on the assembly of multimeric complexes involved in mismatch recognition and signal transduction to downstream repair events.
DNA Replication Proofreading definition: This function depends on the presence of the 3'-5' exonuclease activity present on most DNA polymerases and acting in the opposite direction of DNA polymerization. Incorrectly base paired nucleotides are excised at the 3'-end and immediately replaced by the correct one.
regulation of DNA replication initiation definition: Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of initiation of DNA replication; the process by which DNA becomes competent to replicate. In eukaryotes, replication competence is established in early G1 and lost during the ensuing S phase. [GOC:mah]
centriole replication definition: The cell cycle process whereby a daughter centriole is formed perpendicular to an existing centriole. An immature centriole contains a ninefold radially symmetric array of single microtubules; mature centrioles consist of a radial array of nine microtubule triplets, doublets, or singlets depending upon the species and cell type. [GOC:kmv, ISBN:0815316194]
DNA replication checkpoint definition: A signal transduction based surveillance mechanism that prevents the initiation of mitosis until DNA replication is complete, thereby ensuring that progeny inherit a full complement of the genome. [GOC:rn, PMID:11728327, PMID:12537518]
replication fork definition: The Y-shaped region of a replicating DNA molecule, resulting from the separation of the DNA strands and in which the synthesis of new strands takes place. Also includes associated protein complexes. [GOC:mah, ISBN:0198547684]
DNA replication factor A complex definition: A conserved heterotrimeric complex that binds nonspecifically to single-stranded DNA and is required for multiple processes in eukaryotic DNA metabolism, including DNA replication, DNA repair, and recombination. In all eukaryotic organisms examined the complex is composed of subunits of approximately 70, 30, and 14 kDa. [PMID:9242902]
replication compartment definition: Globular nuclear domains where the transcription and replication of the viral genome occurs. More than one site can be present simultaneously. [PMID:9499108]
DNA Replication Timing definition: The temporal order in which the DNA of the GENOME is replicated.
DNA replication accessory factor definition: OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete). [GOC:jl]
DNA Replication Factor definition: DNA Replication Factor (CDT1), encoded by the CDT1 gene, is essential for DNA replication and chromatin licensing. Geminin inhibits inappropriate origin firing by targeting CDT1. CUL4 prevents aberrant reinitiation of DNA replication, at least in part, by facilitating the degradation of CDT1. (From LocusLink, OMIM and NCI)
DNA replication inhibitor definition: OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete). [GOC:jl]
mitochondrial DNA replication definition: The process whereby new strands of DNA are synthesized in the mitochondrion. [GOC:ai]
CDT1 Gene definition: This gene is involved in pre-initiation of DNA replication.
GMNN Gene definition: This gene plays a role in DNA replication regulation.
DNA replication factor definition: OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete). [GOC:jl]
CDK Regulation Pathway definition: The mammalian calpain gene family currently contains 13 distinct large subunit products most of which complex with one of two smaller 30kDa subunits. One of the most carefully studied functions of the calpains is the regulation of integrin-mediated cell migration. Calpains digest the links between the actin cytoskeleton and several focal adhesion complex proteins; talin, paxillin and focal adhesion kinase. The release from the focal adhesion complex facilitates migration. Calpastatin is an inhibitor expressed in most cells. Calpastatin binds the four inhibitory domains of calpain. Release from calpastatin does not activate calpain. Activation requires additional signaling, coactivators, and an appropriate calcium concentration. During cell migration calpain1 (mu-calpain) acts at the leading edge as a response to integrin signals or calcium fluctuations due to the stretch activated calcium channels. Calpain1 cleaves the target proteins, talin, ezrin, paxillin, and the cytoplasmic tail of the integrins B1(a) and B3(b) to release the adhesion and form new adhesions. Calpain2 (M-calpain) is believed to be membrane bound and functions at the trailing edge of the migrating cell to cleave the integrins in response to growth factor receptor signals. PKA functions to down regulate or inhibit calpain2. In Alzheimers disease, amyloid peptides interfere with calpain activity causing a mislocalization of cdk5. Deregulated cdk5 hyperphosphorylates tau promoting cell death in neurons. Mutations in the muscle specific calpain p94 lead to Limb Girdle muscular dystrophy 2A (LGMD2A). Over activity of calpains due to elevated calcium leads to tissue damage in the heart and brain. (BioCarta)
DNA Replication Damage definition: DNA sequence errors introduced via DNA replication.
DNA Replication Induction definition: DNA Replication Induction involves initiation of activities of biologic molecules or complexes involved in the process by which the two strands of a DNA double helix separate and each strand acts as a template for the synthesis of a complementary strand by specific base pairing.
DNA Replication Inhibition definition: DNA Replication Inhibition involves interference with, or restraint of, the activities of biologic molecules or complexes involved in the process by which the two strands of a DNA double helix separate and each strand acts as a template for the synthesis of a complementary strand by specific base pairing.
Replication-Associated Process definition: Any subcellular or molecular event, process, or condition immediately and directly involved in the molecular process of DNA replication or preparation for chromosome transfer to daughter cells. (NCI)
Replication Error definition: A Replication Error results from the covalent addition of an incorrect nucleotide subunit, or the lack of addition of a nucleotide subunit, during polymerization of the growing newly synthesized DNA strand during replication. (NCI)
Replication Licensing definition: The exact duplication of a genome once per cell division is required of every proliferating cell. To achieve this goal, eukaryotes adopt a strategy that limits every replication origin to a single initiation event within a narrow window of the cell cycle by temporally separating the assembly of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) from the initiation of DNA synthesis. A key component of the pre-RC is the hexameric MCM complex. An elaborate mechanism recruits the MCM complex to replication origins, and a regulatory chain reaction converts the poised, but inactive, MCM complex into an enzymatically active helicase. (from PMID 11282021 and NCI)
DNA replication preinitiation complex definition: A multiprotein complex assembled at eukaryotic DNA replication origins immediately prior to the initiation of DNA replication. The preinitiation complex is formed by the assembly of additional proteins onto an existing prereplicative complex. In budding yeast, the additional proteins include Cdc45p, Sld2p, Sld3p, Dpb11p, DNA polymerases, and others. [PMID:12694535, PMID:15194812]
replication fork processing definition: The process by which a DNA replication fork that has stalled (due to DNA damage, DNA secondary structure, bound proteins, dNTP shortage, or other causes) is repaired and replication is restarted. [PMID:11459955, PMID:15367656, PMID:17660542]
cytoplasmic replication fork definition: The Y-shaped region of a cytoplasmic replicating DNA molecule, resulting from the separation of the DNA strands and in which the synthesis of new strands takes place. Also includes associated protein complexes. [GOC:jl, GOC:mtg_sensu]
centrosome duplication definition: The replication of a centrosome, a structure comprised of a pair of centrioles and peri-centriolar material from which a microtubule spindle apparatus is organized. [GOC:ai]
 
 
deGerman
Kopie definition: [1] Nachbildung [2] speziell die Fotokopie
 
frFrench
réplication definition: Duplication de l'ADN.
réplication definition: Reproduction de données.