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Definition
 
enEnglish
Antibody Formation definition: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
antibody formation definition: synthesis of antibodies in response to B-cell activation by antigens; includes genetic regulation, recombination, all aspects of gene expression of the antibodies as well as the proliferation and differentiation of the B lymphocytes into plasma cells or memory cells.
immunoglobulin production definition: The appearance of immunoglobulin due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels. [GOC:add, ISBN:0781735149 "Fundamental Immunology"]
Complement Activation definition: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
complement activation definition: Any process involved in the activation of any of the steps of the complement cascade, which allows for the direct killing of microbes, the disposal of immune complexes, and the regulation of other immune processes; the initial steps of complement activation involve one of three pathways, the classical pathway, the alternative pathway, and the lectin pathway, all of which lead to the terminal complement pathway. [GO_REF:0000022, GOC:add, GOC:mtg_15nov05, ISBN:0781735149 "Fundamental Immunology"]
complement pathway regulation definition: factors which act in the complement sequence to activate, modulate or prevent the progression of the reaction.
Complement Activation definition: The complement system consists of more than 30 proteins engaged in host defense. It provides both an independent immune system capable of attacking microbes as well as other foreign material and an adjunct to the antibody system. Once activated, the complement system fires in a cascade-like fashion in which one component activates the next. Both swift and powerful, millions of complement components can deposit on an invading microbe within only a few minutes. Such a potent system requires strict regulation to avoid host injury. Membrane cofactor protein (MCP) is one critical regulator aimed at controlling inadvertent complement activation on host cells and nearly every cell examined expresses MCP on its cell membrane.
Conditioning, Classical definition: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
associative learning definition: Learning by associating a stimulus (the cause) with a particular outcome (the effect). [ISBN:0582227089]
Pavlovian Conditioning definition: A classical conditioning procedures that present different stimuli in temporal proximity (contiguity), but where resulting responses have no reinforcing or aversive consequences. Named after the author of the experiments (Dr. I. Pavlov) in which dogs were conditioned to salivate at the sound of a tone.
Galvanic Skin Response definition: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
galvanic skin response definition: change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring during changing emotional states and in certain other conditions.
Generalization, Response definition: The principle that after an organism learns to respond in a particular manner to a stimulus, that stimulus is effective in eliciting similar responses.
response generalization definition: principle that after an organism learns to respond in a particular manner to a stimulus, that stimulus is effective in eliciting similar responses.
Reaction Time definition: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
psychomotor reaction time definition: time from the onset of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) stimulus until a motor activity response is observed.
immune response definition: Any immune system process that functions in the calibrated response of an organism to a potential internal or invasive threat. [GO_REF:0000022, GOC:add, GOC:mtg_15nov05]
immune response definition: alteration in the reactivity of the immune system of an organism in response to an antigen; in vertebrates, this may involve antibody production, induction of cell mediated immunity, complement activation or development of immunological tolerance.
Immune Response definition: 1. any response of the immune system to an antigen including antibody production and/or cell-mediated immunity; 2. the response of the immune system to an antigen (immunogen) that leads to the condition of induced sensitivity; the immune response to the initial antigenic exposure (primary immune response) is detectable, as a rule, only after a lag period of from several days to two weeks; the immune response to a subsequent stimulus (secondary immune response) by the same antigen is more rapid than in the case of the primary immune response.
Immune Response definition: The activity of the immune system against foreign substances (antigens).
Photosensitivity definition: Increased sensitivity of the skin to light.
Response Elements definition: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Response Elements definition: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promotor and enhancer regions.
complete response definition: The disappearance of all signs of cancer in response to treatment. This does not always mean the cancer has been cured.
response to drug definition: A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a drug stimulus. A drug is a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a disease. [GOC:jl]
Response definition: Any act or phenomena, or behavior, constituting a reply or reaction of a living organism or its part to some foregoing stimulus or agent.
jump response definition: The sudden, usually upward, movement off the ground or other surface through sudden muscular effort in the legs, following exposure to an external stimulus. [GOC:jic, ISBN:0198606907]
response to pheromone definition: A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a pheromone stimulus. [GOC:jl]
response to osmotic stress definition: A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating an increase or decrease in the concentration of solutes outside the organism or cell. [GOC:jl]
hyperosmotic response definition: A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism or cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of detection of, or exposure to, a hyperosmotic environment, i.e. an environment with a higher concentration of solutes than the organism or cell. [GOC:jl, http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/]
hypotonic response definition: A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism or cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of detection of, or exposure to, a hypotonic environment, i.e. an environment with a lower concentration of solutes than the organism or cell. [GOC:jl, http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/]
defense response definition: Reactions, triggered in response to the presence of a foreign body or the occurrence of an injury, which result in restriction of damage to the organism attacked or prevention/recovery from the infection caused by the attack. [GOC:go_curators]
inflammatory response definition: The immediate defensive reaction (by vertebrate tissue) to infection or injury caused by chemical or physical agents. The process is characterized by local vasodilation, extravasation of plasma into intercellular spaces and accumulation of white blood cells and macrophages. [GO_REF:0000022, GOC:mtg_15nov05, ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
Inflammatory Response definition: A part of innate immunity, the Inflammatory Response occurs when injured tissues induce release of vasodilatory, opsonizing, and chemotactic mediators that attract macrophages and leukocytes to phagocytize and destroy foreign substances; dilate local blood vessels increasing local blood flow; increase capillary permeability; produce edematous swelling; and induce pain. Plasma- and cell-derived inflammatory mediators include Prostaglandins, Leukotrines, Cytokines, Lymphokines, Monokines, PAF, Histamine, Bradykinin, Complement, and Interferons.
response to virus definition: A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus from a virus. [GOC:hb]
Antiviral Response definition: An Antiviral Response is an induced humoral or cell-mediated reaction of the immune system to a viral antigen or infection.
response to cycloheximide definition: A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a cycloheximide stimulus. Cycloheximide (actidione) is an antibiotic produced by some Streptomyces species which interferes with protein synthesis in eukaryotes. [CHEBI:27641, GOC:ef, ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
response to acetate definition: A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an acetate stimulus. [GOC:sm]
response to acid definition: A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an acid stimulus. [GOC:rn]
fear response definition: The response of an organism to a perceived external threat. [GOC:go_curators]
Antibacterial Response definition: An Antibacterial Response is an induced humoral or cell-mediated reaction of the immune system to a bacterial antigen or infection.
Antitumor Response definition: An Antitumor Response involves destruction of cancer tumor cells primarily by activated T-cells induced to react to antigens recognized as foreign and expressed by the transformed cells.
partial response definition: A decrease in the size of a tumor, or in the extent of cancer in the body, in response to treatment.
response to alkaloid definition: A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an alkaloid stimulus. Alkaloids are a large group of nitrogenous substances found in naturally in plants, many of which have extracts that are pharmacologically active. [GOC:jl, http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/]
response definition: In medicine, an improvement related to treatment.
Yes, No, Unknown, or Not Applicable Response definition: A response or indicator that can have a value of yes, no, unknown, or not applicable.
Answer definition: A statement (either spoken or written) that is made in reply to a question or request or criticism or accusation; a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem.
Response Declined definition: Used to indicate when a respondent makes a decision to not answer a question.
response to host immune response definition: A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of detecting the immune response of the host organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo_17jul06]
NY definition: A term that is used to indicate a question with permissible values of yes/no/unknown/not applicable.
CDISC SDTM Yes No Unknown or Not Applicable Response Terminology definition: Terminology codelist used with Yes No Unknown or Not Applicable Response within the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium Study Data Tabulation Model.
response to symbiont immune response definition: OBSOLETE. A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of detecting the immune response of the symbiont organism. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. [GOC:mtg_pamgo]
response to alkalinity definition: A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a pH stimulus with pH > 7. [GOC:tb]
response to acidity definition: A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a pH stimulus with pH < 7. [GOC:tb]
response to activity definition: A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an activity stimulus. [GOC:mtg_muscle]
answer definition: Réponse.
answer definition: Réplique.
response definition: Réponse.
response definition: Conséquence, répercussion, réponse, réaction.
 
 
deGerman
Zuschrift definition: [1] ein Brief (oder email), der als Reaktion auf etwas an jmdn. geschickt wird
 
frFrench
conséquence definition: Suite qu’une action ou un événement peut avoir.
conséquence definition: Importance.
conséquence definition: Conclusion tirée d’une ou plusieurs propositions et, en général, ce qui dérive, ce que l’on déduit d’un principe, d’un fait, etc.
réaction definition: Action d’un corps sur un autre qui agit ou vient d’agir sur lui.
réaction definition: Modifications d’ordre chimique résultant de l’action d’un corps sur un autre.
réaction definition: Action de l’organisme en réponse à une excitation quelconque.
réaction definition: Émotion que provoque un reproche, une menace, une nouvelle heureuse ou fâcheuse, etc.
réaction definition: Mouvement d’opinion qui agit dans un sens contraire au mouvement qui a précédé.
réaction definition: Action d’un parti politique qui s’efforce de rétablir l’état de choses antérieur.
réaction definition: Ce parti lui-même.
réaction definition: Chacun des mouvements plus ou moins vifs et brutaux d’un cheval, et chacune des secousses que ces mouvements font éprouver au cavalier.
réponse definition: Parole dite à celui qui fait une demande, une question.
réponse definition: Écrit, d’une lettre répondant à un autre écrit.
réponse definition: #* '''''Réponse''' payée,'' Télégramme dont la taxe est acquittée d’avance par celui qui demande une '''réponse''' à son propre télégramme.
réponse definition: Réfutation.
réponse definition: Il se dit particulièrement, en termes de procédures des écritures qu’une partie fait signifier pour répondre aux moyens que l’autre a présentés.
réponse definition: Motif d’une fugue qui répond, qui correspond au sujet.
répercussion definition: Renvoi, réflexion (en parlant des sons, de la lumière, de la chaleur).
répercussion definition: Dans le langage général, il signifie Conséquence, choc en retour.