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Signal Transduction definition: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
biological signal transduction definition: any process which helps to produce biological responses to events in the environment or internal milieu; e.g., transduction of light into nerve impulses by the retina, or transduction of hormone binding into cellular events by hormone receptors.
signal transduction definition: The cascade of processes by which a signal interacts with a receptor, causing a change in the level or activity of a second messenger or other downstream target, and ultimately effecting a change in the functioning of the cell. [GOC:go_curators]
Signal Transduction definition: Any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Processes referred to as signal transduction often involve a sequence of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers.
LDL-Receptor Related Protein 1 definition: A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.
Signaling Pathway definition: An elaboration of the known or inferred interactions involved in a signal transduction pathway.
Agouti Signaling Protein definition: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.
Autocrine Communication definition: Mode of communication wherein a bound hormone affects the function of the cell type that produced the hormone.
Paracrine Communication definition: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
calcium-mediated signaling definition: A series of molecular signals in which a cell uses calcium ions to convert an extracellular signal into a response. [GOC:ceb]
Calcium Signaling definition: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Calcium Signaling definition: Triggered by external stimuli, Calcium Signaling involves local influx, or mobilization from the ER through IP3R and RyR channels, of calcium ions into the cytoplasm as an intracellular second messenger in mechanisms that activate calcium-responsive signal transduction proteins that regulate diverse forms of cellular activity.
Adaptor Signaling Protein definition: A class of signaling pathway proteins that function to mediate the coupling of multiple cell surface receptors to downstream signaling pathways in the regulation of various cellular functions. (from Oncogene 2001;20:6315-21)
cell-cell signaling definition: Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another. [GOC:mah]
Intercellular Communication definition: An information exchange between living cells through direct cell contacts or by extracellular chemical signals. Cell signaling allows cell populations to maintain homeostatic balance and enable healthy cells and tissue to respond to external stimuli. This balance is frequently disrupted in cancerous or tumorigenic cells.
carbohydrate mediated signaling definition: A series of molecular signals mediated by the detection of carbohydrate. [GOC:sm]
abscisic acid mediated signaling definition: A series of molecular signals mediated by the detection of abscisic acid. [GOC:sm]
auxin mediated signaling pathway definition: The series of molecular signals generated in response to detection of auxin. [GOC:mah, GOC:sm]
brassinosteroid mediated signaling definition: A series of molecular signals mediated by the detection of brassinosteroid. [GOC:sm]
gibberellic acid mediated signaling definition: A series of molecular signals mediated by the detection of gibberellic acid. [GOC:sm]
adaptation of rhodopsin mediated signaling definition: Process by which the visual system can modulate its sensitivity and response to light stimuli (that might vary over more than 6 magnitudes in intensity) without response saturation. [PMID:1962207]
BMP signaling pathway definition: A series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of any member of the BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) family binding to a cell surface receptor. [ISBN:0878932437]
gamma-aminobutyric acid signaling pathway definition: The series of molecular signals generated by the binding of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 4-aminobutyrate), an amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter in some organisms, to a cell surface receptor. [GOC:mah]
blue light signaling pathway definition: The series of molecular signals initiated upon sensing of blue light by photoreceptor molecule, at a wavelength between 440nm and 500nm. [GOC:lr, GOC:sm]
androgen receptor signaling pathway definition: Any series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of an androgen binding to its receptor. [GOC:mah]
cAMP-mediated signaling definition: A series of molecular signals in which a cell uses cyclic AMP to convert an extracellular signal into a response. [GOC:mah]
cGMP-mediated signaling definition: A series of molecular signals in which a cell uses cyclic GMP to convert an extracellular signal into a response. [GOC:mah]
Adaptor Signaling Protein Gene definition: A class of genes that encode signaling pathway proteins that function to mediate the coupling of multiple cell surface receptors to downstream signaling pathways in the regulation of various cellular functions. (from Oncogene 2001;20:6315-21)
BCR Downstream Signaling 1 definition: BCR Downstream Signaling 1, encoded by BRDG1 gene, functions as a docking protein acting downstream of Tec tyrosine kinase in B cell antigen receptor signaling. This protein is directly phosphorylated by Tec in vitro where it participates in a positive feedback loop, increasing Tec activity. A mouse ortholog, stem cell adaptor protein 1, shares 83% identity with its human counterpart. It has a proline-rich region, a pleckstrin homology domain and SH2 domain. (From LocusLink, Swiss_Prot and NCI)
STAP1 Gene definition: This gene is involved in signal transduction and protein trafficking. It also plays a role in the immune response.
RASD1 Gene definition: This gene is involved in signal transduction and cell organization/biogenesis.
Signaling Protein definition: Proteins or peptides that participate in signal transduction processes in the cell.
ATM Signaling Pathway definition: The ataxia telangiectasia-mutated gene (ATM) encodes a protein kinase that acts as a tumor suppressor. ATM activation by ionizing radiation damage to DNA stimulates DNA repair and blocks progression through the cell cycle. Mutation of the ATM gene causes the disease ataxia telangiectasia which involves an inherited predisposition to some cancers. To play this role ATM interacts with a broad network of proteins, including checkpoint factors (chk1, chk2), tumor suppressors (p53 and BRCA), DNA repair factors (RAD50, RAD51, GADD45), and other signaling molecules (c-Abl and NF-kB). In addition to regulating DNA repair and the cell cycle, ATM can also trigger apoptosis in radiation treated cells. (Biocarta)
Angiotensin II Signaling Pathway definition: Ang II binding to AT1-R triggers the activation of Ca2+ signaling and PKC. The signal is then transmitted to Pyk2 and to the small G protein Rac1 but not Cdc42. In turn, Rac1 activates a small G protein-activated kinase whose identity is still controversial, but which has been suggested to be PAK1. Finally, the JNK cascade, including MEKK1, SEK1, and JNK, is activated, causing induction of the c-Jun gene via binding of ATF2 and c-Jun heterodimer to the junTRE2 site. Ang II is closely involved in cardiac remodeling by stimulating synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. It was recently found that expression of fibronectin by Ang II is transcriptionally regulated by AP-1 complex in cardiac fibroblasts. The collagenase gene, containing AP-1 sites, is also regulated by AP-1 components, including c-Jun. AP-1 activity is also enhanced in Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Expression of ANF is regulated by AP-1 components. (Biocarta)
Bioactive Peptide Signaling Pathway definition: Many different peptides act as signaling molecules, including the proinflammatory peptide bradykinin, the protease enzyme thrombin, and the blood pressure regulating peptide angiotensin. While these three proteins are distinct in their sequence and physiology, and act through different cell surface receptors, they share in a common class of cell surface receptors called G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Other polypeptide ligands of GPCRs include vasopressin, oxytocin, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, GnRH, leutinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone, orexins, urotensin II, endorphins, enkephalins, and many others. GPCRs form a broad and diverse gene family that responds not only to peptide ligands but also small molecule neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin and adrenaline), light, odorants, taste, lipids, nucleotides, and ions. The main signaling mechanism used by GPCRs is to interact with G-protein GTPase proteins coupled to downstream second messenger systems including intracellular calcium release and cAMP production. The intracellular signaling systems used by peptide GPCRs are similar to those used by all GPCRs, and are typically classified according to the G-protein they interact with and the second messenger system that is activated. For Gs-coupled GPCRs, activation of the G-protein Gs by receptor stimulates the downstream activation of adenylate cyclase and the production of cyclic AMP, while Gi-coupled receptors inhibit cAMP production. One of the key results of cAMP production is activation of protein kinase A. Gq-coupled receptors stimulate phospholipase C, releasing IP3 and diacylglycerol. IP3 binds to a receptor in the ER to cause the release of intracellular calcium, and the subsequent activation of protein kinase C, calmodulin-dependent pathways. In addition to these second messenger signaling systems for GPCRs, GPCR pathways exhibit crosstalk with other signaling pathways including tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors and map kinase pathways. Transactivation of either receptor tyrosine kinases like the EGF receptor or focal adhesion complexes can stimulate ras activation through the adaptor proteins Shc, Grb2 and Sos, and downstream Map kinases activating Erk1 and Erk2. Src kinases may also play an essential intermediary role in the activation of ras and map kinase pathways by GPCRs. (Biocarta)
CCR3 Signaling Pathway definition: Eosinophils are a key class of leukocytes involved in inflammatory responses, including allergic reactions in skin and airway. The eosinophil response in inflammation is absent in mice lacking CCR3, indicating the key role of this G protein coupled receptor in inflammation and allergic responses. Eotaxin is a chemokine ligand for CCR3 that recruits eosinophils to the site of inflammation and activates them. Other chemokine ligands of CCR3 include eotaxin-2, MCP-3, MCP-4, and RANTES. Multiple signaling pathways activated by CCR3 participate in the inflammatory response of eosinophils. Eotaxin stimulates intracellular calcium release, production of reactive oxygen species, and changes in actin polymerization through a pertussis sensitive pathway. Rho is a G protein that activates ROCK, a protein kinase. Rho and ROCK regulate actin stress fiber formation and are required for eosinophil chemotaxis. Map kinase pathways are also involved in chemotaxis. Another key action of activated eosinophils is the release of reactive oxygen species, causing tissue damage during chronic inflammatory responses. Blocking eosinophil activation and the signaling pathways that lead to chemotaxis, degranulation, and reactive oxygen release may alleviate inflammatory conditions and inflammation-associated tissue damage. (BioCarta)
CCR5 Signaling Pathway definition: The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 in macrophages are activated by their peptide ligands and also by the HIV envelope protein GP120 during HIV infection. One mechanism of signaling by these GPCRs is through activation of Gi signaling. These chemokine receptors can also signal through a Gi-independent pertussis toxin-insensitive pathway. This pathway elevates calcium influx into the cell through CRAC channels, ion channels that are activated by calcium release. Elevated calcium from CRAC is required for downstream activation of Pyk2, a focal adhesion-associated protein kinase. Non Gi signaling by these chemokine receptors also involves the Jnk and p38 Map kinase pathways leading to AP-1 activation and activation of genes such as MIP-1 and MCP-1. This pathway may be involved in the role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of AIDS. (BioCarta)
CD40L Signaling Pathway definition: The CD40 receptor was first associated with expression in B cells and the role it plays through its ligand CD40L (CD154) in moderating T cell activation. Broader expression may indicate a broader role for CD40 and CD40L in immune function and disease states such as transplant rejection and HIV infection. Disruption and modulation of CD40 interaction with CD40L may prove therapeutic in the treatment of autoimmune disorders, heart disease, and cancer. As a member of the TNF receptor family, CD40 relies on interaction with TRAF proteins to mediate an intracellular signal in response to CD40L binding. The pathway downstream of TRAFs activates the transcription factor NF-kappaB through a kinase pathway involving map kinases, NIK (NF-kappaB inducing kinase) and I-kappa B kinases. Some CD40 responses like regulation of immunoglobulin expression might be mediated by NF-kappaB transcriptional activation. (BioCarta)
Cytokine Signaling definition: Cytokine Signaling involves leukocyte secretion of soluble short-range low molecular weight hormone-like intercellular messenger proteins that communicate with immune and other cells to coordinate an immune response. Cytokines primarily stimulate or inhibit activation, differentiation, proliferation, or function of phagocytes, lymphocytes, and hematopoietic stem cells in immune and inflammatory responses to bacteria, virally infected cells, and cancer cells.
Receptor Signaling definition: Transduction of regulatory signals mediated by nuclear or cytoplasmic receptors.
AKT Signaling Pathway definition: Many cell-surface receptors induce production of second messengers like PIP3, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, that convey signals to the cytoplasm from the cell surface. PIP3 signals activate the kinase PDK1, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1, which in turn activates the kinase AKT, also known as protein kinase B. Proteins phosphorylated by activated AKT promote cell survival. Phosphorylation of Ikappa-B kinase leads to activation of the transcription factor NF-kB to oppose apoptosis. Bad is a protein in the Bcl-2 gene family that opposes Bcl-2 to induce apoptosis. Phosphorylation of Bad by AKT blocks anti-apoptotic activity to promote cell survival. Similarly, phosphorylation of the protease caspase 9 or forkhead transcription factors by AKT block the induction of apoptosis by these factors. AKT promotes cell survival and opposes apoptosis by a variety of routes. (BioCarta)
Attenuation of GPCR Signaling Pathway definition: The G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family transduces extracellular signals across the plasma membrane, activating cellular responses through a variety of second messenger cascades (see PKA and PKC signaling pathways). These receptors provide rapid responses to a variety of stimuli, and are often rapidly attenuated in their signaling. Failure to attenuate GPCR signaling can have dramatic consequences. One method to attenuate GPCR signaling is by removal of the stimulus from the extracellular fluid. At the synapse, removal of neurotransmitter or peptide signaling molecules is accomplished by either reuptake or degradation. Acetylcholine is removed from synapses through degradation by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase results in prolonged signaling at the neuromuscular junction, and uncontrollable spasms in humans caused by nerve gas or in insects by some insecticides. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase is also used therapeutically to treat Alzheimer's disease, compensating for the loss of cholinergic neurons.Transporters for serotonin, dopamine, GABA and noradrenaline remove these neurotransmitters from the synapse to terminate signaling. Antidepressants such as Prozac inhibit reuptake of serotonin and many drugs of abuse such as cocaine act by blocking reuptake of dopamine or adrenaline. Reuptake not only terminates signaling, but can also conserve neurotransmitter through recycling back into the presynaptic cell. The next step in the attenuation of GPCR signaling is receptor desensitization, in which receptors are modified to no longer transduce a signal even if the stimulus is still present. Desensitization of GPCRs occurs through protein kinases that phosphorylate the GPCR to turn off signaling. Downstream protein kinases such as PKA and PKC turned on by GPCR signaling can phosphorylate the activated GPCR and other GPCRs to prevent further signaling. G-protein receptor kinases (GRKs) are a family of kinases that specifically phosphorylate only agonist-occupied GPCRs. GRKs attenuate GPCR signaling in concert with arrestins, proteins that bind GRK-phosphorylated GPCRs to disrupt interaction with G-protein and to terminate signaling.Reducing the number of receptor expressed on the cell surface can also attenuate receptor signaling. Many GPCRs are removed from the cell surface by receptor-mediated endocytosis when they are activated. Endocytosis of activated GPCRs appears to be stimulated by GRKs and arrestins. Once internalized, receptors can either be degraded in lysosomes or they can be recycled back to the cell surface. (BioCarta)
BCR Signaling Pathway definition: Significant progress has been made towards delineation of the intrinsic molecular processes that regulate B lymphocyte immune function. Recent observations have provided a clearer picture of the interactive signaling pathways that emanate from the mature B cell antigen receptor (BCR) complex and the different precursor complexes that are expressed during development. Studies have also revealed that the net functional response to a given antigenic challenge is affected by the combined action of BCR-dependent signaling pathways, as well as those originating from various coreceptors expressed by B cells (e.g. CD19, CD22, FcgRIIb and PIR-B).It is now well established that reversible tyrosine phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating B cell biology. In particular, binding of antigen to the BCR promotes the activation of several protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) that, in conjunction with protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP), alter the homeostasis of reversible tyrosine phosphorylation in the resting B cell. The net effect is a transient increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation that facilitates the phosphotyrosine dependent formation of effector protein complexes, promotes targeting of effector proteins to specific microenvironments within the B cell and initiates the catalytic activation of downstream effector proteins. Studies have demonstrated that Src family PTKs are activated initially and serve to phosphorylate CD79a and CD79b thereby creating phosphotyrosine motifs that recruit downstream signaling proteins. In particular, phosphorylation of the BCR complex leads to the recruitment and activation of the PTK Syk, which in turn promotes phosphorylation of PLCg, Shc and Vav. Additionally, the Tec family member Btk is recruited to the plasma membrane where it is involved in activation of PLCg. Initiation of B lymphocyte activation is dependent on the tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent formation of multi-molecular effector protein complexes that activate downstream signaling pathways. The formation of such complexes was initially hypothesized to occur primarily via effector protein binding to the BCR complex itself. However, recent studies have demonstrated that productive signaling via the BCR is in fact dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation of one or more adapter proteins that play a crucial role in recruitment and organization of effector proteins at the plasma membrane. The SLP-65/BLNK adapter protein has recently been shown to play a crucial role in recruitment and activation of key signal transducing effector proteins in the B cell. After the BCR has been engaged by antigen and the activation response has been initiated, numerous second messengers and intermediate signal transducing proteins are activated. These include the production of lipid second messengers by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and the PLC-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to yield diacylglycerol and 1,4,5-inositoltrisphosphate (IP3). DAG is important for activation of PKC whereas IP3 promote release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum and the subsequent influx Ca2+ from the extracellular space. Numerous intermediate signaling proteins are also activated including the Ras and Rap1, which are small molecular weight GTPases and these ultimately lead to the activation of MAP kinases including Erk, JNK and p38. The net effect of second messenger production and activation of intermediate signaling proteins is the concerted regulation of several transcription factors that mediate gene transcription in the B cell. (Biocarta)
Cell Death Signaling Process definition: Any subcellular or molecular event, process, or condition involved in reception, transduction, processing, integration, discrimination, transmission, dissemination, or response to a cell communication event, process, or condition related to cell death. (NCI)
Cell Signaling Process definition: Any subcellular or molecular event, process, or condition involved in receptor-ligand interaction, transduction, processing, integration, discrimination, transmission, or response to a cell communication event, process, or condition. (NCI)
Cell to Cell Adhesion Signaling Pathway definition: Interactions between cells, responsible for cell to cell adhesion, can communicate signals into the cellular interior. These signals often involve interactions with cytoskeletal elements to produce changes in cell motility, migration, proliferation and shape. The cadherins are cell surface adhesion molecules that help form tight junctions between cells, such as in formation of epithelial cell layers. E-cadherin inactivation has been implicated in cancer development. In addition to mediating adhesion with other cells, cadherins transduce signals into cells through interactions with the catenins. Catenins probably affect actin cytoskeletal function through interactions with proteins such as actinin and vinculin. Catenins also probably trigger changes in cell shape and motility by signals through the Rho small GTPases. Another important cell adhesion molecule is CD-31, or PECAM-1, involved in the formation of junctions between endothelial cells, cell migration, migration of lymphocytes, and regulation of lymphocyte activation. Src phosphorylates PECAM-1 on tyrosine residues causing SHP-2 association with PECAM-1. Paxillin acts as an adaptor protein between proteins involved in adhesion signaling like FAK and src and cytoskeletal elements. In addition to signals created by adhesion molecules to alter cellular responses, other signaling pathways can alter adhesion through components of the focal adhesion complex. (BioCarta)
Ceramide Signaling Pathway definition: Ceramide is a sphingosine-based lipid-signaling molecule involved in the regulation of cellular differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. This diagram represents some of the current understanding of the cascades that couple ceramide to specific signaling pathways. These cascades illustrate that ceramide can be a growth stimulus or proapoptotic signal. The ultimate ceramide action is determined within the context of other stimuli and by the subcellular topology of its production and is cell-type specific. There are 2 forms of sphingomyelinase, acid (acid-sphingomyelinase, A-SMase) and neutral (neutral-sphingomyelinase, N-SMase), that can produce ceramide. TNF-alpha can stimulate either form of sphingomyelinase as can other death receptors. Different domains of TNF-alpha stimulate the different SMases. N-SMase stimulation is enhanced by the receptor for activated-C kinase 1 (RACK1). The activity of each form is dependent on the local intracellular pH. In the illustration the forms are separated to reduce confusion however ceramide produced by either method can stimulate either cascade depending on the presence of specific co-factors and activators. A-SMase has been recognized as one of the required molecules to mediate proapoptotic signaling in cell death induced by a diverse array of stresses such as H2O2, Heat, UV exposure and Radiation. ROS generation in mitochondria activates caspase-3 via cooperation of cytochrome c, Aif and caspase-9 and stimulates or increases ceramide generation through A-SMase in a proapoptotic activation cycle. Caspase-3 further increases its own activation by proteolytically cleaving ceramide inhibited catalase which is an inhibitor of ROS generation. Ceramide-activated protein kinase(CARK) also known as Kinase Supressor of RAS (KSR) activity is in some cases the switch point in the balance between proapoptotic and antiapoptotic signals and is also cell-type specific. In endothelial cells for example the activation of KSR is required for apoptosis. In contrast in epithelial cells activation of KSR is required for cell proliferation. An additional switch point is the availability of Bad in the cell. Activation of KSR leads to further mitochondrial stimulation or association with RAS and activation of the Raf1 cascade leading to proliferation or differentiation. (BioCarta)
G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling definition: G Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPCR) Signaling involves interactions of agonists with seven membrane-spanning receptors that induce receptor interaction with a heterotrimeric GTP-binding (G) protein complex, activation of GDP-GTP exchange on the G protein Ga subunit, dissociation of Ga from the Gbg heterodimer, and interaction of the subunits with intracellular effectors causing signal transduction cascades. GPCRs are coupled to different G protein subtypes that can activate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase, ion channels, PLC, PKC, CaM-KII, MAPKs, Src kinases, PI(3)K, Pyk2 and/or FAK in such diverse processes as neurotransmission, cellular metabolism, cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and immune responses.
Signaling Molecule definition: Molecules, of an unidentified chemical nature, that participate in signal transduction processes in the cell.
Wnt/LRP6 Signaling Pathway definition: Wnt glycoproteins play a role in diverse processes during embryonic patterning in metazoa through interaction with frizzled-type seven-transmembrane-domain receptors (Frz) to stabilize b-catenin. LDL-receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), a Wnt co-receptor, is required for this interaction. Dikkopf (dkk) proteins are both positive and negative modulators of this signaling. (BioCarta)
adenosine receptor signaling pathway definition: The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of an adenosine receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands. [GOC:dph]
brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway definition: The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands. [GOC:mah]
bombesin receptor signaling pathway definition: The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a bombesin receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands. [GOC:mah]
protein kinase B signaling cascade definition: A series of reactions, mediated by the intracellular serine/threonine kinase protein kinase B, which occurs as a result of a single trigger reaction or compound. [GOC:bf]
Activator of G-Protein Signaling 1 definition: Expressed in a variety of tissues (heart strongest), human RASD1 Gene (RASD GTPase Family) at 17p11.2 encodes 281-aa 32-kDa Activator of G-Protein Signaling 1, a dexamethasone inducted RAS-related protein that may play a role in alterations of cell morphology, growth, and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. RASD1 may form a ternary complex with CAPON and NOS1 and may function as a physiologic nitric oxide (NO) effector.
CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins definition: A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
caveolar macromolecular signaling complex definition: A complex composed of proteins required for beta adrenergic receptor activation of protein kinase A. It includes the Cav 12. subunit of L-type calcium channel, protein kinase A regulatory subunit 2(PKAR2), adenyl cyclase, beta-adrenergic receptor, G-alpha-S, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and caveolin 3 (CAV3). [PMID:16648270]
adaptation of signaling pathway definition: The negative regulation of a signal transduction pathway in response to a stimulus upon prolonged exposure to that stimulus. [GOC:isa_complete]
activin receptor signaling pathway definition: A series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of any member of the activin family binding to a cell surface receptor. [GOC:rl]
calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway definition: A series of molecular signals that results in activation of transcription by a member of the NFAT protein family as a consequence of NFAT dephosphorylation by activated calcineurin. The signaling is generated by a receptor binding a ligand, followed by activation of phospholipase C and the subsequent release of inositol trisphosphate, which in turn leads to an increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration that mediates the activation of calcineurin. [GOC:lm, GOC:mah, PMID:15928679]
adiponectin-mediated signaling pathway definition: A series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of adiponectin binding to a cell surface receptor. [GOC:mah]
Atg1p signaling complex definition: A protein complex that contains a protein kinase and is required for the autophagosome formation. In budding yeast this complex consists of the kinase Atg1p, Atg13p and Atg17p. [GOC:rb, PMID:15743910]
Wnt receptor signaling pathway through beta-catenin definition: The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of Wnt protein to a frizzled family receptor on the surface of the target cell and ending with a change in transcription of target genes. [GOC:bf, GOC:dph, PMID:11532397]
apelin receptor signaling pathway definition: The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of an apelin receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands. [GOC:dph]
CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins definition: A family of secreted proteins found associated with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and cell surface receptors. They are believed to play a role in modulating the effects of a variety of GROWTH FACTORS and PROTEASES at the cell membrane extracellular matrix. The CCN protein family is named after three protypical members; CYSTEINE-RICH PROTEIN 61; CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR; and NEPHROBLASTOMA OVEREXPRESSED PROTEIN.
chemokine-mediated signaling pathway definition: A series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a chemokine binding to a cell surface receptor. [GOC:mah]
BMK cascade definition: A cascade of protein kinase activities, culminating in the phosphorylation and activation of big MAP kinase (BMK1/ERK5), which is a type of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. [GOC:add, ISBN:0896039986, PMID:16376520, PMID:16880823]