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Definition
 
enEnglish
Epidemiologic Studies definition: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
Epidemiology Research definition: The study of human populations to identify causes of disease and factors determining and influencing the frequency and distribution of disease, injury, and other health related events.
Blood Coagulation Tests definition: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.
blood coagulation test definition: laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's blood clotting mechanisms.
clinical research definition: research conducted with human subjects or on material of human origin in which an investigator directly interacts with human subjects; includes development of new technologies, mechanism of human diseases, therapy, clinical trials, epidemiology, behavior and health services research.
Clinical Study definition: Research conducted with human subjects or on material of human origin in which an investigator directly interacts with human subjects; includes development of new technologies, study of mechanisms of human diseases, therapy, clinical trials, epidemiologic, behavior, and health services research.
clinical trial definition: controlled study designed to assess the safety and efficacy of new drugs, devices, treatments, or preventive measures in humans by comparing two or more interventions or regimens; prefer specific phase NTs.
Clinical Trials as Topic definition: Pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Clinical Trial definition: A research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes. Interventions include but are not restricted to drugs, cells and other biological products, surgical procedures, radiologic procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, and preventive care.
Clinical Trial definition: A type of research study that tests how well new medical treatments or other interventions work in people. Such studies test new methods of screening, prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of a disease. The study may be carried out in a clinic or other medical facility.
Cohort Studies definition: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
COHORT ANALYTIC STUDY definition: Prospective investigation of the factors that might cause a disorder in which a cohort of individuals who do not have evidence of an outcome of interest but who are exposed to the putative cause are compared with a concurrent cohort who are also free of the outcome but not exposed to the putative cause. Both cohorts are then followed to compare the incidence of the outcome of interest.
Comparative Study definition: Comparison of outcomes, results, responses, etc for different techniques, therapeutic approaches or other inputs.
Drug Evaluation definition: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
Echocardiography, Doppler definition: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
Doppler Echocardiography definition: A procedure that uses sound waves to measure characteristics of disturbed bood flow, such as direction, velocity and turbulence. This enables the examiner to differentiate between normal and abnormal flow patterns and, in some cases, to quantitate those characteristics that are helpful in determining the severity of abnormal flow states.
Education, Graduate definition: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
Evaluation Studies definition: Works consisting of studies determining the effectiveness or utility of processes, personnel, and equipment.
Feasibility Studies definition: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Follow-Up Studies definition: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Follow-up Study definition: Study in which persons exposed to risk or given a designated preventive or therapeutic regimen are observed over a period or at intervals to determine the outcome of the exposure or regimen.
Intervention Studies definition: Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.
Longitudinal Studies definition: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
prospective definition: In medicine, a study or clinical trial in which participants are identified and then followed forward in time.
longitudinal study definition: Investigation in which data are collected from a number of subjects over a long period of time (a well-known example is the Framingham Study).
case report definition: A detailed report of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports also contain some demographic information about the patient (for example, age, gender, ethnic origin).
Case Study definition: An uncontrolled observational study containing a detailed report of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports also contain some demographic information about the patient (for example, age, gender, ethnic origin).
CROSSOVER TRIAL definition: A method of comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. Typically, allocation to the first treatment is by random process. Participants' performance in one period is used to judge their performance in others, usually reducing variability.
Cross-Over Studies definition: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
human subject definition: index on all projects using human subjects, except those where other human terms can be substituted; prior to FY 1993 this term was subdivided into CLINICAL (1465-2234) and NONCLINICAL (1465-2800).
Interdisciplinary Research definition: Studies that bring together multiple scientific disciplines to address specific issues.
cooperative study definition: grants or contracts that are part of a cooperative study agree to adhere to a common protocol that has been developed in cooperation with a particular institute; use on all U grants, R10 grants or other applicable grants at the S emphasis level.
field study definition: index on all projects indicating field studies in their work; studies include investigations conducted at the site or source for making determinations, assays, or other observations of natural occurrences, phenomena, etc, e.g., river toxin sampling; may include applying the results of bench research in the field, e.g., field testing of equipment.
histopathology definition: study of the microscopic anatomical changes in diseased tissue.
Histopathologic Examination definition: The microscopic study of characteristic tissue abnormalities by employing various cytochemical and immunocytochemical stains.
Experiment definition: A set of actions and observations, performed to verify or falsify a hypothesis or research a causal relationship between phenomena.
laboratory study definition: Research done in a laboratory. These studies may use test tubes or animals to find out if a drug, procedure, or treatment is likely to be useful. Laboratory studies take place before any testing is done in humans.
controlled study definition: An experiment or clinical trial that includes a comparison (control) group.
ADME Study definition: A group of pharmacokinetic parameters commonly investigated during preclinical drug development.
Adjuvant Study definition: A study performed secondary to and in support of a primary or base study in order to support, enhance, or expand upon its results or findings.
Correlative Study definition: A type of study that tests for a relationship between a condition and a potential causal factor of the condition.
Ancillary Study definition: Studies which are secondary to another study.
DIAGNOSIS definition: A type of study protocol designed to evaluate intervention(s) aimed at identifying a disease or condition. (NCI)
Diagnosis Study definition: A type of study designed to evaluate method(s) aimed at identifying a disease or condition.
CURE definition: A type of study protocol designed to evaluate intervention(s) aimed to cure a disease or condition. (NCI)
Cure Study definition: A type of study protocol designed to evaluate intervention(s) aimed to cure a disease or condition.
Study Object definition: An abbreviated set of written procedures that describe how a previously collected biospecimen will be utilized. Note that biospecimens may be collected (and utilized) with one PROTOCOL and then later utilized by multiple different STUDIES. (caTISSUE)
AIDS Clinical Trial definition: A clinical trial designed to evaluate the development, safety, and efficacy of vaccines and therapeutics directed against AIDS.
BIO-AVAILABILITY definition: A study of the degree to which or rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed or becomes available at the site of physiological activity after administration. (NCI)
Bioavailability Study definition: A study of the degree to which, or rate at which, a drug or other substance is absorbed or becomes available at the site of physiological activity after administration.
EFFICACY definition: A study of the relative therapeutic efficacy of treatment of a disease. Usually this is a Phase II or III study. (NCI)
Efficacy Study definition: A study of the relative therapeutic efficacy of treatment of a disease. Usually this is a Phase II or III study.
DICOM Study definition: One or more series of images taken on a single visit to a medical facility.
Study definition: A collection of one or more series of Composite Instances (such as Images, Presentation States, or SR documents) that are logically related for the purpose of diagnosing a patient, created by one or more modalities or devices.
Image Study definition: A radiographic technique used to evaluate a specific anatomic location for a specific purpose.
Active Study definition: A clinical study status designating the study open to accrual.
Study Completed definition: A clinical study status designating the study has been completed normally, according to the protocol. Subject enrollment stopped. No participants are treated or being followed up.
On Study definition: Actively participating in a study.
Genome-Wide Association Study definition: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
Study definition: A detailed examination, analysis, or critical inspection of a subject designed to discover facts about it.
study definition: Étude (1, 3).
 
 
deGerman
lernen definition: [1] der Erwerb von Kenntnissen und/oder geistigen oder körperlichen Fähigkeiten und Erfahrungen [2] gezielt einen vorgegebenen Lernstoff erarbeiten und verinnerlichen
beobachten definition: [1] überwachen [2] Wissenschaft: wahrnehmen oder messen [3] veraltet: beachten
Untersuchung definition: [1] die genauere Betrachtung, Beobachtung oder das Betasten zur Bestimmung eines Sachverhalts oder Objektes
studieren definition: [1]
Arbeitszimmer definition: [1] ein Zimmer, in dem verschiedenste Arbeiten ausgeführt werden
Studie definition: [1] wissenschaftliche Untersuchung [2] Entwurf
 
itItalian
studiare definition: [1] studieren [2] lernen [3] beobachten [4] untersuchen [5] einstudieren, üben, einüben
 
frFrench
étude definition: Action d'étudier, travailler pour apprendre ou approfondir des savoirs.
étude definition: Les différents degrés de l’instruction scolaire.
étude definition: Examen préliminaire d’une question, d’un projet.
étude definition: Lieu où l’on réunit les élèves pour étudier leurs leçons et faire leurs devoirs. On dit très souvent aussi : salle d’étude
étude definition: Le temps de ces exercices.
étude definition: Pièce où un notaire, un avoué, un huissier fait travailler ses clercs. Dépôt des minutes et des papiers que les notaires et les avoués conservent ; Clientèle du notaire, de l’avoué, etc.
étude definition: Un dessin ou un morceau de peinture, de sculpture, exécuté pour l’étude particulière d’un objet.
étude definition: Composition faite pour exercer au doigté, au jeu d’un instrument.
étude definition: Type d’ouvrage proche de l'essai.
étude definition: Action d’apprendre par cœur un rôle. On dit plutôt aujourd'hui étudier un rôle.
étude definition: Connaissances acquises.
étude definition: Soin particulier que l’on apporte à quelque chose.
étude definition: Préméditation.
étude definition: Objet d’étude, de soin.
étude definition: Affectation, recherche.
étude definition: Chambre, cabinet où l’on étudie, où l’on compose.
téléenseignement definition: Enseignement à distance utilisant des outils de télécommunication.