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Definition
 
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Angiotensinogen definition: An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.
angiotensinogen definition: a serum alpha-globulin synthesized in the liver, which is cleaved by renin to form angiotensin I.
Substrate Cycling definition: A set of opposing, nonequilibrium reactions catalyzed by different enzymes which act simultaneously, with at least one of the reactions driven by ATP hydrolysis. The results of the cycle are that ATP energy is depleted, heat is produced and no net substrate-to-product conversion is achieved. Examples of substrate cycling are cycling of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways and cycling of the triglycerides and fatty acid pathways. Rates of substrate cycling may be increased many-fold in association with hypermetabolic states resulting from severe burns, cold exposure, hyperthyroidism, or acute exercise.
Substrate Specificity definition: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
focal adhesion kinase definition: nonEC; endogenous substrate for insulin receptor associated tyrosine kinase.
Focal Adhesion Kinase 1 definition: endogenous substrate for insulin receptor associated tyrosine kinase. (CSP98)
Focal Adhesion Kinase 1 definition: Focal adhesion kinase (PTK2) lacks significant homology with other kinases and concentrates in focal adhesions between cells growing in extracellular matrix constituents. PTK2 contains phosphotyrosine in growing cells, or after treatment with cholecystokinin, bombesin, vasopressin, or endothelin, but little in detached cells. Activation of PTK2 may be important in signal transduction pathways triggered by neural peptides or by cell interactions with the extracellular matrix. PTK2 is a major substrate for pp60v-src. A CRK-associated tyrosine kinase substrate, p130-CAS, is a PTK2-interacting protein. This interaction requires the proline-rich region of PTK2 and the SH3 domain of p130-CAS. The interaction may also be a key element in integrin-mediated signal transduction and may represent a direct molecular link between the SRC and CRK oncoproteins. FAK may be an endogenous substrate for insulin receptor associated tyrosine kinase. (from OMIM and NCI)
Focal Adhesion Kinase 1 definition: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
Renin Substrate Tetradecapeptide definition: A synthetic or processed 14-amino acid peptide that is used to measure RENIN activities.
Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 definition: The protein IRS1 acts as an interface between signaling proteins with Src homology-2 domains (SH2 proteins) and the receptors for insulin, IGF2, growth hormone, several interleukins (IL4, IL9, IL13), and other cytokines. It regulates gene expression and stimulates mitogenesis and appears to mediate insulin/IGF1-stimulated glucose transport. (from OMIM 600797)
enzyme substrate definition: the reactant in any enzyme catalyzed reaction.
Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 definition: Similar in function to IRS1; insulin receptor substrate 2 is a cytoplasmic protein that contains many potential tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylation sites. Tyrosine-phosphorylated IRS2 protein has been shown to associate with cytoplasmic signalling molecules that contain SH2 domains. The IRS2 protein is phosphorylated by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase upon receptor stimulation, as well as by an interleukin-4 receptor (IL4R) -associated kinase in response to IL4 treatment. (LocusLink)
FGFR Substrate 2 definition: Encoded by human FRS2 Gene, 508-aa 56.8-kD FGFR Substrate 2 contains a myristylation sequence, a PTB domain, and 4 potential GRB2/SHP2-binding sites. FGFR-mediated Tyr-phosphorylated FRS2 binds to FGFR1 and GRB2/SOS in response to FGF or NGF. An FGFR1 juxtamembrane segment and the PTB domain appear to interact and mediate FRS Tyr phosphorylation. Myristylation is essential for FRS2 membrane localization, Tyr phosphorylation, GRB2/SOS recruitment, and MAPK activation. FRS2A is Thr phosphorylated by MAPK in response to FGF, insulin, EGF, and PDGF. FRS2 may function as a lipid-anchored docking protein that targets signaling molecules to the plasma membrane in response to FGF to link receptor activation with MAPK and other pathways essential for cell growth and differentiation. (NCI)
enzyme substrate analog definition: synthetic or natural chemical compounds which resemble naturally occurring enzyme substrates in structure and/or function.
enzyme substrate complex definition: in an enzymatic reaction substrate and enzyme form an intermediate substance, the enzyme substrate complex.
Insulin Receptor Substrate 4 definition: Similar in function to IRS1 and IRS2; insulin receptor substrate 4 is a cytoplasmic protein that contains many potential tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylation sites. Tyrosine-phosphorylated IRS4 protein has been shown to associate with cytoplasmic signalling molecules that contain SH2 domains. The IRS4 protein is phosphorylated by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase upon receptor stimulation.
cell-matrix adhesion definition: The binding of a cell to the extracellular matrix via adhesion molecules. [GOC:hb]
cell-substrate junction definition: A cell junction that forms a connection between a cell and the extracellular matrix. [GOC:hb, GOC:mah]
Cell-Matrix Junctions definition: Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.
Cell-Matrix Adhesion definition: Mechanisms whereby cells attach to the extracellular matrix.
Crk-Associated Substrate Protein definition: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
chemotaxis to oxidizable substrate definition: The directed movement of a motile cell or organism in response to the presence of an oxidizable substrate, for example, fructose. [GOC:jl, PMID:11029423]
substrate-bound cell migration, cell attachment to substrate definition: The formation of adhesions that stabilize protrusions at the leading edge of a migrating cell; involves integrin activation, clustering, and the recruitment of structural and signaling components to nascent adhesions. [ISBN:0815316194, PMID:11944043, PMID:14657486]
cell-substrate junction assembly definition: The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a junction between a cell and its substrate. [GOC:mah]
cell-substrate adherens junction definition: An adherens junction which connects a cell to the extracellular matrix. [GOC:hb]
BAIAP2 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in neuronal growth regulation.
CTBP1 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in the repression of both transcription and cell proliferation.
FGFR Substrate 3 definition: Encoded by human FRS3 Gene, 492-aa 54-kDa plasma membrane-associated FGFR Substrate 3 is an FGFR substrate that links FGFR stimulation to RAS activators. Similar (49% identical) to FRS2, FRS3 also contains a myristylation sequence, a PTB domain, and Tyr-containing motifs that govern GRB2 and SHP2 recruitment. FRS2 and FRS3 bind directly to FGFR1; an FGFR1 juxtamembrane segment and the PTB domain appear to interact and mediate FRS Tyr phosphorylation. (NCI)
FRS2 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in signal transduction.
FRS3 Gene definition: This gene is involved in signal transduction.
IRS1 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in signal transduction and carbohydrate metabolism. It is involved in mediation of the insulin response.
IRS2 Gene definition: This gene is involved in signal transduction and is associated with Diabetes Mellitus.
IRS4 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in signal transduction and ligand binding.
MRVI1 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in signal transduction.
BCAR1 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in signal transduction and is involved in cell adhesion, migration and proliferation.
CTNND1 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in signal transduction.
Breast Cancer Anti-Estrogen Resistance 1 Protein definition: Encoded by human BCAR1 Gene, conserved ubiquitous 870-amino acid 116 kD cytoplasmic p130CAS (CAS Family) is an adaptor molecule: Ser-region, NH-SH3, central YXXP motif SH2-binding site substrate domain, SRC SH3-binding site COOH Pro-rich binding region, and C-terminal HLH. SH3 localizes CAS to focal adhesions; interacts with FAK1 P-rich region. FAK1 phosphorylates CAS YDYVHL motif. SRCs phosphorylate CAS. CAS SH2-binding sites may bind CRK, NCK, and ABL. CAS HLH may dimerize CASL. CAS Ser region promotes serum response. CAS moves to focal adhesions upon integrin triggered Y-phosphorylation. CAS complexes with CRKL and LYN. CAS functions in cardiovascular development, actin assembly, cell migration, and growth. Over expression confers breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance. (from SWISS-PROT, OMIM, and NCI)
Substrate Domain definition: A Substrate Domain is a protein region that physically interacts stereospecifically, and usually at high affinity, with a specific target substrate. In enzymes, the substrate domain is often, though not necessarily, coincident with the catalytic domain. Typically, substrate interaction results in some protein conformational alteration and functional modification. (NCI)
Substrate Interaction definition: Substrate Interaction involves temporary non-covalent binding through intermolecular physical forces of attraction and spatial complementarity between biological molecules, usually proteins, that possess catalytic activity and a target molecule upon which the enzyme produces a chemical or topological transformation.
Gelatin Zymography definition: An SDS-PAGE based procedure used to identify matrix metalloproteinases.
Cortactin definition: Encoded by human EMS1 Gene, 550-amino acid Cortactin is an actin-binding protein involved in restructuring of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Similar to murine Cttn, cytoplasmic Cortactin is located in cell-substratum contact areas and contains one SH3 domain that may bind to the cytoskeleton. Cortactin may organize epithelial cell structure; it regulates interactions between adherens junction components and interacts with the cytoskeleton. It may interact with SHANK2 and SHANK3 via its SH2 domain. A substrate for pp60v-SRC, Cortactin tyrosine phosphorylation may regulate cell growth. EGF enhances p85 phosphorylation and causes p80 to p85 conversion. Posttranslational modification of Cortactin coincides with redistribution to cell-matrix contact sites. Cortactin is degraded during apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. (from Swiss-Prot, OMIM, and NCI)
cell-substrate adhesion definition: The attachment of a cell to the underlying substrate via adhesion molecules. [GOC:mah, GOC:pf]
insulin receptor substrate binding definition: Interacting selectively with any of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, adaptor proteins that bind to the transphosphorylated insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors, are themselves phosphorylated and in turn recruit SH2 domain-containing signaling molecules to form a productive signaling complex. [PMID:12829233]
multicellular organism adhesion to substrate definition: The attachment of a multicellular organism to a surface or material. [GOC:isa_complete]
SIRPA Gene definition: This gene is involved in cellular signal transduction and tyrosine kinase-coupled signaling processes.
Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins definition: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
regulation of cell-substrate adhesion definition: Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell-substrate adhesion. Cell-substrate adhesion is the attachment of a cell to the underlying substrate via adhesion molecules. [GOC:dph, GOC:pf, GOC:tb]
Catenin Delta-1 definition: Catenin delta-1 (968 aa, ~108 kDa) is encoded by the human CTNND1 gene. This protein plays a role in receptor-mediated signaling.
 
 
frFrench
substrat definition: couche constituant le socle d’une autre.
substrat definition: Matériau sur lequel ou dans lequel sont fabriqués les éléments d'un dispositif ou d'un circuit électronique.
substrat definition: Synonyme de substratum.