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Mutagenesis, Site-Directed definition: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
site directed mutagenesis definition: mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by in vitro induction directed at a specific site in a DNA molecule; the most common method involves use of a chemically synthesized oligonucleotide mutant which can hybridize with the DNA target molecule; the resulting mismatch-carrying DNA duplex may then be transfected into a bacterial cell line and the mutant strands recovered.
Targeted Mutation definition: A mutation created in a gene at a specific location.
Site-Directed Mutagenesis definition: Any of several methods used to create alterations in a gene at a specific location.
Targeted Fusion Protein Therapy definition: Drug therapy in which the drug is a fusion protein generated by molecular biology procedures. The fusion protein combines a cell targeting moiety, such as an antibody fragment, with an effector moiety, like a bacterial toxin.
Targeting definition: The process of directing an agent to a specific anatomic location.
doxorubicin-magnetic targeted carrier complex definition: Anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin bound to microscopic beads of activated carbon and iron (magnetic targeted carriers). With placement of a magnet on the body surface overlying a tumor site, this carrier complex delivers doxorubicin directly to the tumor, thereby prolonging the duration of the therapeutic effects while decreasing its systemic toxicity. Doxorubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. This agent also produces toxic free-radical intermediates and interacts with cell membrane lipids causing lipid peroxidation. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38388&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38388&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C2644" NCI Thesaurus)
Doxorubicin-Magnetic Targeted Carrier Complex definition: A formulation of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin in which doxorubicin is bound to microscopic beads of activated carbon and iron as a magnetic-targeted carrier (MTC). Doxorubicin, an intercalator and a topoisomerase II inhibitor, prevents DNA replication and ultimately inhibits protein synthesis. This agent also generates oxygen free radicals, resulting in cytotoxic lipid peroxidation of cell membrane lipids. Guided by the placement of a magnet on the body surface overlying a tumor site, the doxorubicin-MTC complex delivers doxorubicin directly to the tumor site, thereby targeting and prolonging the duration of doxorubicin-mediated cytotoxicity to the tumor bed while minimizing systemic toxicity.
CNGRC Peptide-TNF Alpha Conjugate definition: A cytokine-peptide conjugate composed of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) chemically linked to the peptide CNGRC. The peptide moiety CNGRC, a ligand for the membrane-bound metalloprotease CD13, binds to endothelial cells of the angiogenic vasculature that express CD13 (also known as aminopeptidase N); subsequently, the TNF-alpha moiety induces apoptosis in endothelial cells expressing CD13, thereby inhibiting tumor-associated angiogenesis. (NCI05)
CNGRC peptide-TNF alpha conjugate definition: A cytokine-peptide conjugate composed of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) chemically linked to the peptide CNGRC. The peptide moiety CNGRC, a ligand for the membrane-bound metalloprotease CD13, binds to endothelial cells of the angiogenic vasculature that express CD13 (also known as aminopeptidase N); subsequently, the TNF-alpha moiety induces apoptosis in endothelial cells expressing CD13, thereby inhibiting tumor-associated angiogenesis. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=403156&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=403156&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C48383" NCI Thesaurus)
Minority Health and Assistance, Targeted definition: Health aid that is directed to minority groups.
Transferrin Receptor-Targeted Liposomal p53 cDNA definition: A cationic liposomal, tumor-targeting p53 (TP53) gene delivery system with potential anti-tumor activity. Transferrin receptor-targeted liposomal p53 cDNA contains plasmid DNA encoding the tumor suppressor protein p53 packaged in membrane-like liposome capsules that are complexed with anti-transferrin receptor single-chain antibody (TfRscFv). Upon systemic administration, the anti-TfRscFv selectively binds to tumor cells expressing transferrin receptors. The p53 plasmid is delivered into the nucleus and as a result, p53 protein is produced in tumor cells that have altered p53 function. This results in the restoration of normal cell growth control mechanisms as well as normal response mechanisms to DNA damage.
Targeted Accrual Standard Cancer Center Information Summary definition: The Targeted Accrual, Standard Cancer Center Information Summary for Cancer Center Support Grant Application, is the total number of patients needed for the entire clinical trial as stated in the protocol. Not a targeted range, but the number of patients the Cancer Center expects to accrue over the next 12 months of the reporting period should be indicated in the document.
Targeted Research definition: Research funded as a result of an institute set aside of dollars for a specific scientific area. Institutes solicit applications using research initiatives (RFAs for grants, RFPs for contracts). Targeted research applications are reviewed by chartered peer review committees within institutes. The opposite of Investigator-initiated research.
magnetic-targeted carriers definition: Tiny beads made from particles of iron and carbon that can be attached to an anticancer drug. A magnet applied from outside the body then can direct the drug to the tumor site. This can keep a larger dose of the drug at the tumor site for a longer period of time, and help protect healthy tissue from the side effects of chemotherapy.
Magnetic-Targeted Carriers definition: Microparticles comprised of metallic iron and activated carbon used as a delivery vehicle for pharmaceutical agents.
Target definition: An object fixed as a goal or point of examination; something to point at; a destination.
Nanoparticle-targeted Drug definition: A complex consisting of a therapeutic entity coupled to a nanoparticle entity that has an external coating designed to deliver the therapeutic to a precise location in the body. This complex is useful because of the ability to deliver drugs in a controlled fashion to a specific site of interest. Conjugates such as this are also utilized as imaging and contrast agents for MRI and other imaging studies.
Targeted Gene Repair definition: A technique which uses synthetic oligonucleotides to direct the cell's inherent DNA repair system to correct a mutation at a specific site in an episome or chromosome.
Folate Receptor-Targeted Vinca Alkaloid/Mitomycin C EC0225 definition: A folate receptor-targeting cytotoxic agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Folate receptor-targeted vinca alkaloid/mitomycin C EC0225 contains two potent cytotoxic agents, a vinca alkaloid and mitomycin C, linked to a single folate molecule. Mediated through the folate moiety, this agent delivers the cytotoxic agents directly into cells expressing folic acid receptors, frequently upregulated in many types of tumor cells. After ligand-receptor internalization, the vinca alkaloid moiety binds to tubulin and disrupts microtubule assembly-disassembly dynamics, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Mitomycin C alkylates DNA, producing DNA cross-links and inhibiting DNA replication. The relative tumor cell specificity of EC0225 reduces the toxicity profiles of its cytotoxic agent moieties.
Folate Receptor-Targeted Technetium Tc 99m EC20 definition: A folate receptor-targeting radiopharmaceutical consisting of a folate-containing tetrapeptide chelator to which technetium Tc 99m is linked. The folate component of folate receptor-targeted technetium Tc 99m EC20 binds to folic acid receptors, which are frequently upregulated in many types of tumor cells and activated macrophages. Gamma scintigraphy may then be used to image folate receptor-positive tumors.
SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase complex definition: A nuclear ubiquitin ligase complex that specifically targets SUMOylated proteins; the complex is formed of homodimers or heterodimers of RNF4 family ubiquitin ligases and is conserved in eukaryotes. [GOC:vw, PMID:17762864, PMID:17762865]
syncytium formation by plasma membrane fusion of virally targeted cells definition: The formation in a cell that has been targeted by a virus of a syncytium, a mass of cytoplasm containing several nuclei enclosed within a single plasma membrane, by the fusion of the plasma membranes of two or more individual cells. [GOC:dph]
Clinical Study Targeted Accrual definition: A total number of subjects needed for the entire clinical study. The final sample size documented in the study protocol.
Targeted Accrual definition: The final sample size that must be attained according to the study protocol.
Targeted Accrual at Clinical Study Site definition: A total number of subjects needed for the entire clinical study at a particular clinical study site.
Targeted Anatomic Site definition: An anatomic site targeted for a particular medical intervention.
Folate Receptor Targeted Epothilone BMS753493 definition: A folate receptor-targeting antimitotic agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Folate receptor-targeted epothilone BMS753493 contains an epothilone moiety linked to a single folate molecule. Mediated through the folate moiety, this agent delivers the antimitotic epothilone component into cells expressing folic acid receptors, frequently upregulated in many types of tumor cells. After ligand-receptor internalization, the epothilone moiety induces microtubule polymerization and stabilizes microtubules against depolymerization, resulting in the inhibition of mitosis and cellular proliferation.
Targeted Molecular Therapy definition: Cancer therapies designed to act upon specific molecules in metabolic pathways or processes involved in carcinogenesis, tumor growth, or tumor spread.