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Transmembrane Protein definition: A protein that is an integral membrane protein with a transmembrane region.
Membrane Potentials definition: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
membrane potential definition: electrical potential difference across a biological, i.e., cell or organelle, or artificial membrane.
DEAD/H Box Protein 26 definition: Encoded by human DDX26 Gene (DEAD Family), the highly conserved candidate tumor suppressor 1687-amino acid 188.5-kD DEAD/H Box Protein 26 contains a vWF type A domain. With a likely important cellular function, DDX26 is expressed in a variety of fetal and adult tissues. DEAD box proteins, characterized by a conserved Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD) motif, are putative RNA helicases that alter RNA secondary structure and influence translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on distribution, some family members may be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. (from LocusLink, Swiss-Prot, OMIM, and NCI)
cellobiose transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of cellobiose from one side of the membrane to the other. Cellobiose, or 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose, is a disaccharide that represents the basic repeating unit of cellulose. [GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology", ISBN:0815340729]
fructose transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of fructose from one side of the membrane to the other. Fructose exists in a open chain form or as a ring compound. D-fructose is the sweetest of the sugars and is found free in a large number of fruits and honey. [GOC:ai, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
galactitol transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a galactitol from one side of the membrane to the other. Galactitol is the hexitol derived by the reduction of the aldehyde group of either D- or L-galactose. [GOC:ai, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
galactosamine transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of galactosamine from one side of the membrane to the other. Galactosamine is an aminodeoxysugar; D-galactosamine is a constituent of some glycolipids and glycosaminoglycans, commonly as its N-acetyl derivative. [GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology", ISBN:0815340729]
glucose transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of the hexose monosaccharide glucose from one side of the membrane to the other. [GOC:ai, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
amine transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of amines, including polyamines, from one side of the membrane to the other. Amines are organic compounds that are weakly basic in character and contain an amino (-NH2) or substituted amino group. [GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology", ISBN:0815340729]
acetylcholine transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of acetylcholine from one side of the membrane to the other. Acetylcholine is an acetic acid ester of the organic base choline and functions as a neurotransmitter, released at the synapses of parasympathetic nerves and at neuromuscular junctions. [GOC:ai]
betaine transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of betaine, the N-trimethyl derivative of an amino acid, from one side of the membrane to the other. [GOC:ai]
choline transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of choline from one side of the membrane to the other. Choline (2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium) is an amino alcohol that occurs widely in living organisms as a constituent of certain types of phospholipids and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. [GOC:ai]
dopamine transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of dopamine from one side of the membrane to the other. Dopamine is a catecholamine neurotransmitter and a metabolic precursor of noradrenaline and adrenaline. [GOC:ai]
arginine transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the stereospecific transfer of arginine, 2-amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid, across a biological membrane. [GOC:go_curators, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology", ISBN:0815340729]
disaccharide transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of disaccharide from one side of the membrane to the other. [GOC:jl, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
glucose-6-phosphate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of glucose-6-phosphate from one side of the membrane to the other. Glucose-6-phosphate is a monophosphorylated derivative of glucose with the phosphate group attached to C-6. [GOC:ai, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
anion transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a negatively charged ion from one side of a membrane to the other. [GOC:def, GOC:df, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
antimonite transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of antimonite from one side of a membrane to the other. [GOC:ai]
arsenite transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of arsenite from one side of a membrane to the other. [GOC:ai]
bicarbonate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of bicarbonate from one side of a membrane to the other. Bicarbonate is the hydrogencarbonate ion, HCO3-. [GOC:ai]
chlorate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of chlorate from one side of a membrane to the other. Chlorates are inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion. [http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/]
chloride transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of chloride ions from one side of a membrane to the other. [GOC:ai]
chromate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of chromate from one side of a membrane to the other. Chromate is the anion of chromic acid, H2CrO4 (aq) or CrO3. [GOC:ai]
cyanate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of cyanate, NCO-, the anion of cyanic acid, from one side of a membrane to the other. [GOC:ai]
acetate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of acetate from one side of the membrane to the other. Acetate is the 2-carbon carboxylic acid ethanoic acid. [GOC:ai]
allantoate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of allantoate from one side of the membrane to the other. Allantoate is the end product of purine metabolism in mammals and some fish, formed form allantoin. It is widely distributed in plants as an important source of stored nitrogen. [GOC:ai, ISBN:0198547684]
bilirubin transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of bilirubin from one side of the membrane to the other. Bilirubin is a linear tetrapyrrole produced in the reticuloendothelial system from biliverdin and transported to the liver as a complex with serum albumin. In the liver, bilirubin is converted to bilirubin bisglucuronide, which is excreted in the bile. [GOC:ai, ISBN:0198547684]
formate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of formate from one side of the membrane to the other. Formate is also known as methanoate, the anion HCOO- derived from methanoic (formic) acid. [GOC:ai]
gluconate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of gluconate from one side of the membrane to the other. Gluconate is the aldonic acid derived from glucose. [GOC:ai, ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
galacturonate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of galacturonate from one side of the membrane to the other. Galacturonate is the uronic acid formally derived from galactose by oxidation of the hydroxymethylene group at C-6 to a carboxyl group. [GOC:ai]
citrate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of citrate, 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboyxlate, from one side of the membrane to the other. [GOC:ai]
ammonium transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of ammonium from one side of a membrane to the other. Ammonium is the cation NH4+ which is formed from N2 by root-nodule bacteria in leguminous plants and is an excretory product in ammonotelic animals. [ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
adenine transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of adenine, 6-aminopurine, from one side of a membrane to the other. [GOC:go_curators]
cytosine transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of cytosine, 4-amino-2-hydroxypyrimidine from one side of a membrane to the other. [GOC:go_curators]
cytidine transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of cytidine, cytosine riboside, from one side of a membrane to the other. [GOC:go_curators]
deoxynucleotide transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalyzes transport of all four deoxy (d) NDPs, and, less efficiently, the corresponding dNTPs, in exchange for dNDPs, ADP, or ATP. [PMID:11226231]
ADP transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of ADP, adenosine diphosphate, from one side of a membrane to the other. [GOC:ai]
ATP transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of ATP, adenosine triphosphate, from one side of a membrane to the other. [GOC:ai]
active transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a specific substance or related group of substances from one side of a membrane to the other, up the solute's concentration gradient. The transporter binds the solute and undergoes a series of conformational changes. Transport works equally well in either direction. [GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
efflux transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a specific substance or related group of substances from the inside of the cell to the outside of the cell across a membrane. [GOC:ai, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
arabitol transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of an arabitol from one side of the membrane to the other. Arabitol is the pentitol derived from arabinose or lyxose by reduction of the aldehyde group. The D enantiomer is present in lichens and mushrooms. [ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
integral to membrane definition: Penetrating at least one phospholipid bilayer of a membrane. May also refer to the state of being buried in the bilayer with no exposure outside the bilayer. When used to describe a protein, indicates that all or part of the peptide sequence is embedded in the membrane. [GOC:go_curators]
transmembrane ephrin definition: OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete). [GOC:ai]
arbutin transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of arbutin, a glycoside found in the bearberry and related plants which has been used to treat urinary-tract diseases, from one side of the membrane to the other. [GOC:jl, GOC:mtg_transport, http://biotech.icmb.utexas.edu/, ISBN:0815340729]
glucoside transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of glucosides from one side of the membrane to the other. Glucosides are glycosides in which the sugar moiety is a glucose residue. [GOC:jl, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
arabinose transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of arabinose, a pentose monosaccharide that occurs in both D and L configurations, and as a polymer, from one side of the membrane to the other. [GOC:jl, GOC:mtg_transport, http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/, ISBN:0815340729]
dextrin transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of dextrin, any one, or the mixture, of the intermediate polysaccharides formed during the hydrolysis of starch, which are dextrorotatory, soluble in water, and precipitable in alcohol, from one side of the membrane to the other. [GOC:jl, GOC:vk, http://www.mercksource.com/]
alkylphosphonate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of an alkylphosphonate from one side of a membrane to the other. [GOC:go_curators]
CNTNAP1 Gene definition: This gene plays a role in brain signal transduction, and may be involved in cellular adhesion.
TSPAN32 Gene definition: This gene is associated with several disease entities, however an exact function has not been elucidated. The gene may play a role in malignancies and hematopoietic cell function.
Transmembrane Domain definition: The portion of an integral membrane protein crossing through the plasma lemma (cell membrane) or that of an internal vesicle. This region is highly hydrophobic, approximately 20 amino acids long, and bordered by charged amino acids.
transmembrane transport definition: The process whereby a solute is transported from one side of a membrane to the other. This process includes the actual movement of the solute, and any regulation and preparatory steps, such as reduction of the solute. [GOC:jid]
Transmembrane Transport definition: Any subcellular or molecular process involved in translocation of a biological molecule across a cell membrane from one site or compartment to another. (NCI)
DNA transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, from one side of a membrane to the other. [GOC:ai]
transmembrane collagen definition: Any collagen polymer that passes through a lipid bilayer membrane. [ISBN:0721639976]
ectoine transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of ectoine from one side of the membrane to the other. Ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid) is a tetrahydropyrimidine commonly synthesized by halophilic bacteria. [GOC:ai]
active ion transmembrane transporter definition: Catalysis of the transfer of an ion from one side of a membrane to the other up the solute's concentration gradient. This is carried out by binding the solute and undergoing a series of conformational changes. Transport works equally well in either direction. [GOC:def, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
alanine transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of alanine from one side of a membrane to the other. Alanine is 2-aminopropanoic acid. [GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
bacteriocin transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a bacteriocin from one side of the membrane to the other. [GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
2-aminoethylphosphonate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Enables the directed movement of 2-aminoethylphosphonate into, out of, within or between cells. [GOC:mlg]
cysteine transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of cysteine from one side of the membrane to the other. [GOC:mah]
ethanolamine transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of ethanolamine from one side of the membrane to the other. Ethanolamine (2-aminoethanol, monoethanolamine) is an amino alcohol that occurs widely in living organisms as a constituent of certain types of phospholipids, such as phosphatidylethanolamine. [GOC:rn, PMID:3514579]
aldarate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of aldarate from one side of the membrane to the other. [GOC:go_curators, PMID:15034926]
aldonate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of aldonate from one side of the membrane to the other. [GOC:jl, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
colicin transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of a colicin from one side of a membrane to the other. Colicins are a group of antibiotics produced by E. coli and related species that are encoded by a group of naturally occurring plasmids, e.g. Col E1. [GOC:jl, GOC:mtg_transport, http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/, ISBN:0815340729]
galactose transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of galactose from one side of the membrane to the other. D-galactose is widely distributed in combined form in plants, animals and microorganisms as a constituent of oligo- and polysaccharides; it also occurs in galactolipids and as its glucoside in lactose and melibiose. [GOC:ai, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
cation transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of cation from one side of the membrane to the other. [GOC:df, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
fumarate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of fumarate from one side of the membrane to the other. Fumarate is a key intermediate in metabolism and is formed in the TCA cycle from succinate and converted into malate. [GOC:ai]
carbohydrate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of carbohydrate from one side of the membrane to the other. [GOC:jl, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
fucose transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of fucose from one side of the membrane to the other. Fucose is 6-deoxygalactose and has two enantiomers, D-fucose and L-fucose. [GOC:ai, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
coenzyme A transmembrane transporter activity definition: Enables the directed movement of coenzyme A across a membrane into, out of, within or between cells. Coenzyme A, 3'-phosphoadenosine-(5')diphospho(4')pantatheine, is an acyl carrier in many acylation and acyl-transfer reactions in which the intermediate is a thiol ester. [GOC:ai]
FAD transmembrane transporter activity definition: Enables the directed movement of flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) across a membrane into, out of, within or between cells. FAD forms the coenzyme of the prosthetic group of various flavoprotein oxidoreductase enzymes, in which it functions as an electron acceptor by being reversibly converted to its reduced form. [ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
cadaverine transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of cadaverine, 1,5-pentanediamine, from one side of the membrane to the other. [GOC:ai]
C4-dicarboxylate transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of C4-dicarboxylate from one side of the membrane to the other. [GOC:krc]
allose transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of allose from one side of the membrane to the other. Allose is an aldohexose similar to glucose, differing only in the configuration of the hydroxyl group of C-3. [GOC:ai, GOC:mtg_transport, ISBN:0815340729]
alcohol transmembrane transporter activity definition: Catalysis of the transfer of an alcohol from one side of the membrane to the other. An alcohol is any carbon compound that contains a hydroxyl group. [ISBN:0198506732 "Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"]
negative regulation of transmembrane transport definition: Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of a solute from one side of a membrane to the other. [GOC:mah]
negative regulation of transmembrane ion transport definition: Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of ions from one side of a membrane to the other. [GOC:mah]