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The different androgen assays used have widely differing accuracy and precision and are subject to large inter-laboratory variation, which especially in women and children can render the results of routinely available direct immunoassays meaningless.

Malcolm Carruthers et al.

The Aging Male 10 (3), 01 Sep 2007

Conclusions Though laboratory assays can support a diagnosis of androgen deficiency in men, they should not be used to exclude it.

Malcolm Carruthers et al.

The Aging Male 10 (3), 01 Sep 2007

It is of increasing clinical importance, therefore, to assess the validity of androgen assays and their interpretation [ 6 ].

Malcolm Carruthers et al.

The Aging Male 10 (3), 01 Sep 2007

Although the use of a serum or plasma sample was acceptable for extraction assays of testosterone, they are not both valid for use in direct assays.

Malcolm Carruthers et al.

The Aging Male 10 (3), 01 Sep 2007

EDTA and citrated plasma samples give grossly different results for all direct assays and should never be used.

Malcolm Carruthers et al.

The Aging Male 10 (3), 01 Sep 2007

Tel: +1 212 305 1152; Fax: +1 212 305 3475; Email: mns18@columbia.edu 1 8 2000 28 15 2915 2918 14 4 2000 14 6 2000 14 6 2000 Copyright © 2000 Oxford University Press 2000 We report herein the first homogeneous assays based on the ribonuclease activity of a deoxyribozyme.

Milan N. Stojanovic et al.

Nucleic Acids Research 28 (15), 01 Aug 2000

Ribozyme kinetics can be followed by double end-labeled substrates ( 9 ), but this strategy has not yet been incorporated into ribozyme-based assays.

Milan N. Stojanovic et al.

Nucleic Acids Research 28 (15), 01 Aug 2000

In the present work we report the first deoxyribozyme-based homogeneous assays built on these precedents.

Milan N. Stojanovic et al.

Nucleic Acids Research 28 (15), 01 Aug 2000

Assays.

Milan N. Stojanovic et al.

Nucleic Acids Research 28 (15), 01 Aug 2000

Although ribozymes have been extensively studied, we chose to use for our assays the more durable deoxyribozymes.

Milan N. Stojanovic et al.

Nucleic Acids Research 28 (15), 01 Aug 2000

Results Three sample types (activated, fixed, and frozen whole blood; fresh whole blood; and cryopreserved PBMC) were shipped to various sites, where ICS assays using cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 peptide mix or control antigens were performed in parallel in 96-well plates.

Holden T Maecker et al.

BMC Immunology 6 (7), 24 Jun 2005

Conclusion ICS assays can be performed by multiple laboratories using a common protocol with good inter-laboratory precision, which improves as the frequency of responding cells increases.

Holden T Maecker et al.

BMC Immunology 6 (7), 24 Jun 2005

Use of pre-aliquoted lyophilized reagents for stimulation and staining can provide further standardization to these assays.

Holden T Maecker et al.

BMC Immunology 6 (7), 24 Jun 2005

Of the two types of assays, ICS has the advantage of a highly multiparametric read-out (flow cytometry) that allows for precise phenotyping of the responding T cell populations.

Holden T Maecker et al.

BMC Immunology 6 (7), 24 Jun 2005

However, while the precision of ELISPOT assays across sites has been recently documented [ 3 ], similar studies for ICS assays have been lacking.

Holden T Maecker et al.

BMC Immunology 6 (7), 24 Jun 2005

A variety of assays both in vivo and in vitro are currently available for the study of different hematopoietic stem cells.

Aroop Mangalik et al.

Environmental Health Perspectives 39 (7), 01 Jun 1981

These assays are semiquantitative.

Aroop Mangalik et al.

Environmental Health Perspectives 39 (7), 01 Jun 1981

The authors discuss studies on the low-cost viral load assays that are currently available and their potential for use in resource-limited settings.

Susan A Fiscus et al.

PLoS Medicine 3 (10), 01 Okt 2006

In industrialized settings, plasma viral load assays are used in combination with CD4 cell counts to determine when to initiate therapy and when a regimen is failing.

Susan A Fiscus et al.

PLoS Medicine 3 (10), 01 Okt 2006

In addition, unlike serologic assays, these assays may be used to diagnose perinatal or acute HIV-1 infection.

Susan A Fiscus et al.

PLoS Medicine 3 (10), 01 Okt 2006

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