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Applied epidemiologists are increasingly working in areas of insecurity and active conflict to define the health risks, suggest feasible means to reduce these risks and, monitor the capacity and reconstruction of the public health system.

Sharon M McDonnell et al.

Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 1 (7), 07 Oct 2004

In 2001, The Carter Center and the United States Institute for Peace sponsored a conference within which "Violence and Health" was discussed and a working group on applied epidemiology formed.

Sharon M McDonnell et al.

Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 1 (7), 07 Oct 2004

The group was tasked to describe the skills that are essential to effective functioning in these settings and thereby provide guidance to the applied epidemiology training programs.

Sharon M McDonnell et al.

Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 1 (7), 07 Oct 2004

We conducted a literature review and consultation of a convenience sample of practitioners of applied epidemiology with experience in conflict areas.

Sharon M McDonnell et al.

Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 1 (7), 07 Oct 2004

During the meeting a specialty workgroup for "training public health care professionals" was formed and asked to focus on applied epidemiologists by describing their role in conflict prevention, mitigation, and documentation.

Sharon M McDonnell et al.

Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 1 (7), 07 Oct 2004

Applied (or field) epidemiology was initially created by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the 1950s as a post-doctoral training program [ 18 ].

Sharon M McDonnell et al.

Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 1 (7), 07 Oct 2004

The applied epidemiologist is trained to conduct high quality scientific studies and to translate findings into practical, effective public health programs.

Sharon M McDonnell et al.

Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 1 (7), 07 Oct 2004

Conclusion This study found a dramatic positive effect on biomechanical parameters of fracture healing by simvastatin treatment directly applied to the fracture area.

Björn Skoglund et al.

BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 8 (7), 27 Sep 2007

The bending force was applied in the sagittal plane.

Björn Skoglund et al.

BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 8 (7), 27 Sep 2007

Conclusion In conclusion, we found an effect of simvastatin treatment directly applied to the fracture area.

Björn Skoglund et al.

BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 8 (7), 27 Sep 2007

The objective of this study is to determine if any direct relationship exists between articulating paper mark area and applied occlusal load.

Jason P Carey et al.

The Open Dentistry Journal 1 (7), 23 Jul 2007

A uniaxial testing machine repeatedly applied a compressive load, beginning at 25N and incrementally continuing up to 450N, to a pair of epoxy dental casts with articulating paper interposed.

Jason P Carey et al.

The Open Dentistry Journal 1 (7), 23 Jul 2007

When the data was grouped to compare consistency of the mark area between teeth, a high variability of mark area was observed between different teeth at the same applied load.

Jason P Carey et al.

The Open Dentistry Journal 1 (7), 23 Jul 2007

No direct relationship between paper mark area and applied load could be found, although the trend showed increasing mark area with elevating load.

Jason P Carey et al.

The Open Dentistry Journal 1 (7), 23 Jul 2007

This same computer system has been shown to reproduce applied load for up to 20 users [ 9 ] while accurately measuring the individual force content of the contacts represented by articulating paper markings [ 9 ].

Jason P Carey et al.

The Open Dentistry Journal 1 (7), 23 Jul 2007

Recently, a Risk Assessment methodology was applied to animal welfare issues in a report of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on intensively housed calves.

Marc BM Bracke et al.

Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 50 (1), 14 Jul 2008

Overall correlations with EFSA scores were significant only for experts with a veterinary or mixed (veterinary and applied ethological) background.

Marc BM Bracke et al.

Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 50 (1), 14 Jul 2008

Points for improvement of the Risk Assessment applied to animal welfare include linking information, reporting uncertainty and transparency about underlying values.

Marc BM Bracke et al.

Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 50 (1), 14 Jul 2008

The study provides novel information on expert opinion in relation to calf welfare and shows that Risk Assessment applied to animal welfare can benefit from a semantic modelling approach.

Marc BM Bracke et al.

Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 50 (1), 14 Jul 2008

In a separate paper [ 10 ] we reported on a critical analysis from a semantic-modelling perspective, and formulated recommendations for improvement of Risk Assessment applied to animal welfare, as presented in the EFSA report [ 8 , 9 ].

Marc BM Bracke et al.

Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 50 (1), 14 Jul 2008

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