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Amino Acid Transport Systems definition: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Amino Acid Transporter definition: Amino Acid Transporter proteins carry organic compounds containing an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group through solubility barriers, such as aqueous body fluids, lipid membranes or across epithelial layers. After binding substrate, transmembrane transporters often undergo an energy-dependent conformational change that moves the substrate across the membrane with (symport) or against (antiport) concentration gradients.
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic definition: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic definition: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral definition: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
 
Examples
 

A series of experiments were designed to determine whether solute carrier SLC6A14 is the molecular correlate of the intestinal β-alanine carrier, perhaps the last of the classical intestinal amino acid transport systems to be identified at the molecular level.

Catriona M H Anderson et al.

The Journal of Physiology 586 (17), 01 Sep 2008

The cloning of transporter related genes over recent years has allowed molecular identification of most of the ‘classical’ amino acid transport systems characterized functionally in specific cells and tissues during the 1960s to 1980s.

Catriona M H Anderson et al.

The Journal of Physiology 586 (17), 01 Sep 2008

In this investigation, a series of experiments were designed to determine whether SLC6A14 is the molecular correlate of the intestinal β-alanine carrier, perhaps the last of the classical intestinal amino acid transport systems to be identified at the molecular level.

Catriona M H Anderson et al.

The Journal of Physiology 586 (17), 01 Sep 2008

References Andersen V Munck BG Transport of the α-amino-mono-carboxylic acid L-alanine by the β-alanine carrier of the rabbit ileum Biochim Biophys Acta 1987 902 145 148 3111534 Anderson CMH Grenade DS Boll M Foltz M Wake KA Kennedy DJ Munck LK Miyauchi S Taylor PM Campbell FC Munck BG Daniel H Ganapathy V Thwaites DT H + /amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) is the imino acid carrier: an intestinal nutrient/drug transporter in human and rat Gastroenterology 2004 127 1410 1422 15521011 Chen Z Fei YJ Anderson CMH Wake KA Miyauchi S Huang W Thwaites DT Ganapathy V Structure, function and immunolocalization of a proton-coupled amino acid transporter (hPAT1) in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 J Physiol 2003 546 349 361 12527723 Chen NH Reith ME Quick MW Synaptic uptake and beyond: the sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family SLC6 Pflugers Arch 2004 447 519 531 12719981 Durand E Boutin P Meyre D Charles MA Clement K Dina C Froguel P Polymorphisms in the amino acid transporter solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter) member 14 gene contribute to polygenic obesity in French Caucasians Diabetes 2004 53 2483 2486 15331564 Flach CF Eriksson A Jennische E Lange S Gunnerek C Lönnroth I Detection of elafin as a candidate biomarker for ulcerative colitis by whole-genome microarray screening Inflamm Bowel Dis 2006 12 837 842 16954802 Flach CF Qadri F Bhuiyan TR Alam NH Jennische E Holmgran J Lönnroth I Differential expression of intestinal membrane transporters in cholera patients FEBS Lett 2007 581 3183 3188 17575980 Ganapathy V Gupta N Martindale RG Johnson LR Protein digestion and absorption Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract 2006 4th edn San Diego Elsevier 1667 1692 Gupta N Miyauchi S Martindale RG Herdman AV Podolsky R Miyake K Mager S Prasad PD Ganapathy ME Ganapathy V Upregulation of the amino acid transporter ATB 0,+ (SLC6A14) in colorectal cancer and metastasis in humans Biochim Biophys Acta 2005 1741 215 223 15905073 Gupta N Prasad PD Ghamande S Moore-Martin P Herdman AV Martindale RG Podolsky R Mager S Ganapathy ME Ganapathy V Up-regulation of the amino acid transporter ATB 0,+ (SLC6A14) in carcinoma of the cervix Gynecol Oncol 2006 100 8 13 16168467 Harris RC Tallon MJ Dunnett M Boobis L Coakley J Kim HJ Fallowfield JL Hill CA Sale C Wise JA The absorption of orally supplied β-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis Amino Acids 2006 30 279 289 16554972 Hatanaka T Haramura M Fei YJ Miyauchi S Bridges CC Ganapathy PS Smith SB Ganapathy V Ganapathy ME Transport of amino acid-based prodrugs by the Na + - and Cl − -coupled amino acid transporter ATB 0,+ and expression of the transporter in tissues amenable for drug delivery J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004 308 1138 1147 14617696 Hatanaka T Huang W Nakanishi T Bridges CC Smith SB Prasad PD Ganapathy ME Ganapathy V Transport of d -serine via the amino acid transporter ATB 0,+ expressed in the colon Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002 291 291 295 11846403 Hatanaka T Nakanishi T Huang W Leibach FH Prasad PD Ganapathy V Ganapathy ME Na + - and Cl − -coupled active transport of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors via amino acid transport system B 0,+ J Clin Invest 2001 107 1035 1043 11306607 Kennedy DJ Gatfield KM Winpenny JP Ganapathy V Thwaites DT Substrate specificity and functional characterisation of the H + /amino acid transporter rat PAT2 (Slc36a2) Br J Pharmacol 2005 144 28 41 15644866 Kennedy DJ Leibach FH Ganapathy V Thwaites DT Optimal absorptive transport of the dipeptide glycylsarcosine is dependent on functional Na + /H + exchange activity Pflugers Arch 2002 445 139 146 12397398 Munck BG Transport of imino acids and non-α-amino acids across the brush-border membrane of the rabbit ileum J Membr Biol 1985 83 15 24 3923197 Munck LK Munck BG Chloride-dependence of amino acid transport in rabbit ileum Biochim Biophys Acta 1990 1027 17 20 2118806 Munck LK Munck BG Distinction between chloride-dependent transport systems for taurine and β-alanine in rabbit ileum Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 1992a 262 G609 G615 Munck LK Munck BG Variation in amino acid transport along the rabbit small intestine.

Catriona M H Anderson et al.

The Journal of Physiology 586 (17), 01 Sep 2008

Mutual jejunal carriers of leucine and lysine Biochim Biophys Acta 1992b 1116 83 90 1581348 Munck LK Munck BG Amino acid transport in the small intestine Physiol Res 1994 43 335 346 7794880 Munck LK Munck BG Transport of glycine and lysine on the chloride-dependent β-alanine (B 0,+ ) carrier in rabbit small intestine Biochim Biophys Acta 1995 1235 93 99 7718612 Munck BG Schultz SG Interactions between leucine and lysine transport in rabbit ileum Biochim Biophys Acta 1969 183 182 193 5792865 Nakanishi T Hatanaka T Huang W Prasad PD Leibach FH Ganapathy ME Ganapathy V Na + - and Cl − -coupled active transport of carnitine by the amino acid transporter ATB 0,+ from mouse colon expressed in HRPE cells and Xenopus oocytes J Physiol 2001 532 297 304 11306651 Paterson JYF Sepúlveda FV Smith MW Distinguishing transport systems having overlapping specificities for neutral and basic amino acids in the rabbit ileum J Physiol 1981 319 345 354 6798199 Sloan JL Grubb BR Mager S Expression of the amino acid transporter ATB 0+ in lung: possible role in luminal protein removal Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2003 284 L39 L49 12388375 Sloan JL Mager S Cloning and functional expression of a human Na + and Cl − -dependent neutral and cationic amino acid transporter B 0+ J Biol Chem 1999 274 23740 23745 10446133 Stout JR Cramer JT Zoeller RF Torok D Costa P Hoffman JR Harris RC O'Kroy J Effects of β-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women Amino Acids 2007 32 381 386 17136505 Suviolahti E Oksanen LJ Ohman M Cantor RM Ridderstrale M Tuomi T Kaprio J Rissanen A Mustajoki P Jousilahti P Vartiainen E Silander K Kilpikari R Salomaa V Groop L Kontula K Peltonen L Pajukanta P The SLC6A14 gene shows evidence of association with obesity J Clin Invest 2003 112 1762 1772 14660752 Thwaites DT Anderson CMH Deciphering the mechanisms of intestinal imino (and amino) acid transport: the redemption of SLC36A1 Biochim Biophys Acta 2007 1768 179 197 17123464 Thwaites DT McEwan GTA Brown CDA Hirst BH Simmons NL Na + -independent, H + -coupled transepithelial β-alanine absorption by human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers J Biol Chem 1993 268 18438 18441 8395502 Ugawa S Sunouchi Y Ueda T Takahashi E Saishin Y Shimada S Characterization of a mouse colonic system B 0+ amino acid transporter related to amino acid absorption in colon Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2001 281 G365 G370 11447016 Umapathy NS Ganapathy V Ganapathy ME Transport of amino acid esters and the amino-acid-based prodrug valganciclovir by the amino acid transporter ATB 0,+ Pharm Res 2004 21 1303 1310 15290873 Van Winkle LJ Christensen HN Campione AL Na + -dependent transport of basic, zwitterionic, and bicyclic amino acids by a broad-scope system in mouse blastocysts J Biol Chem 1985 260 12118 12123 3930488 Zoeller RF Stout JR O'Kroy JA Torok DJ Mielke M Effects of 28 days of β-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on aerobic power, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and time to exhaustion Amino Acids 2007 33 505 510 16953366 We thank Mrs Lisa Burdis for excellent technical assistance.

Catriona M H Anderson et al.

The Journal of Physiology 586 (17), 01 Sep 2008

 
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