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Histone Deacetylases definition: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
Histone Deacetylase definition: Histone acetylation and deacetylation alternately exposes and occludes DNA to transcription factors. Histone deacetylation is catalyzed by the histone deacetylases. There are at least 2 classes of HDACs, class I consisting of proteins homologous to yeast Rpd3 (e.g., HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3) and class II consisting of proteins homologous to yeast Hda1 (e.g., HDAC4 and HDAC6). (from OMIM)
Histone Deacetylase 2 definition: A histone deacetylase subtype that is found along with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 1; RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4; and RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 7 as core components of histone deacetylase complexes.
Histone Deacetylase 2 definition: One of three identified histone deacetylases with similarity to the yeast global transcriptional regulator Rpd3p, HDAC2 is found in transcription factor co-repressor complexes that include HDAC1. BRCA1 interacts with HDAC1 and HDAC2. Acetylation of histone destabilizes nucleosomes allowing transcription factors access to recognition elements in DNA. Deacetylation reseals the chromosomal package, repressing transcription. DNMT1 can establish a repressive transcription complex with HDAC2, and DMAP1. HDAC2 joins DNMT1 and DMAP1 during late S-phase, suggesting how histones may become deacetylated in heterochromatin following replication. (from OMIM 605164 and NCI)
Histone Deacetylase 4 definition: Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone acetylation/deacetylation alters chromosome structure and affects transcription factor access to DNA. This protein belongs to class II of the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family. It possesses histone deacetylase activity and represses transcription when tethered to a promoter. This protein does not bind DNA directly, but through transcription factors MEF2C and MEF2D. It seems to interact in a multiprotein complex with RbAp48 and HDAC3. (LocusLink)
Histone Deacetylase 4 definition: Histone deacetylase 4 is one of three identified histone deacetylases with similarity to the yeast Hda1 histone deacetylase. It is expressed differentially in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle and is found in complexes with HDAC3 and HDAC5. HDAC4 possesses deacetylation activity with all four core histones. HDAC4 interacts with multiple proteins. HDAC4 does not bind DNA directly, but rather through MEF2C and MEF2D. Binding of HDAC4 to MEF2C represses MEF2C transcription activity. (from OMIM 605314 and NCI)
Histone Deacetylase 6 definition: HDAC6 functions as a tubulin deacetylase. HDAC6 is localized exclusively in the cytoplasm, where it associates with microtubules and localizes with the microtubule motor complex. In vivo the overexpression of HDAC6 led to a global deacetylation of alpha-tubulin, whereas a decrease in HDAC6 increased alpha-tubulin acetylation. In vitro, purified HDAC6 potently deacetylated alpha-tubulin in assembled microtubules. Furthermore, overexpression of HDAC6 promoted chemotactic cell movement, supporting the idea that HDAC6-mediated deacetylation regulates microtubule-dependent cell motility. Hubbert et al. (2002) concluded that HDAC6 is the tubulin deacetylase, and provided evidence that reversible acetylation regulates important biologic processes beyond histone metabolism and gene transcription. (from OMIM)
Histone Deacetylase 3 definition: Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone acetylation/deacetylation alters chromosome structure and affects transcription factor access to DNA. This protein belongs to the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family. It has histone deacetylase activity and represses transcription when tethered to a promoter. It may participate in the regulation of transcription through its binding with the zinc-finger transcription factor YY1. This protein can also down-regulate p53 function and thus modulate cell growth and apoptosis. This gene is regarded as a potential tumor suppressor gene. (LocusLink)
Histone Deacetylase 3 definition: Histone deacetylase 3 is one of three identified histone deacetylases with similarity to the yeast global transcriptional regulator Rpd3p. Two isoforms are produced by alternative splicing and it appears to be expressed ubiquitously. HDAC3 can be found in complexes that include HDAC4 and HDAC5, deacetylases with similarity to yeast Hda1 deacetylase. HDAC3 may regulate transcription through binding the zinc-finger transcription factor YY1, increasing its repression activity. RELA is a nonhistone substrate of HDAC3. IKBA-dependent nuclear export of deacetylated RELA replenishes the cytoplasmic pool of NFKB/IKBA complexes for NFKB responses. (from OMIM 605166 and NCI)
chitin deacetylase activity definition: Catalysis of the reaction: chitin + H2O = chitosan + acetate. [EC:3.5.1.41]
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