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genomics Genomik
 
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genomics génomique
 
Definition
 
enEnglish
Aromatase definition: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
aromatase definition: nonEC; cytochrome P450-like enzyme which, with an NADPH-linked reductase, catalyzes the oxidative aromatization of androgens to estrogens in the placenta, ovary, and testis, and at lower levels throughout the body.
Aromatase definition: A p450-like enzyme, Aromatase catalyzes, with an NADPH-linked reductase, the oxidative aromatization of androgens to estrogens. Expressed in gonads, palcenta and brain, Aromatase and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (reductase) are both highly conserved, essential components of the enzyme complex and essential for reproductive development and fertility.
Aromatase Cytochrome P450 definition: The CYP19 gene product, the aromatase cytochrome P-450. One of the two component of the aromatase enzyme, which converts androgens to estrogens by desaturating ring A of the steroid. This enzyme complex is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells including ovaries, placenta, testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells, adipose, and brain tissues. The other component of aromatase is NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase which transfers reducing equivalents to P-450(arom). EC 1.14.13.-.
Aromatase Cytochrome P450 definition: Aromatase is a unique member of the cytochrome P450 enzyme superfamily that catalyzes formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens by desaturating ring A of the steroid. One of two components of the aromatase enzyme complex, aromatase is present in many tissues including skin, muscle, fat, and nerve, where it may contribute to sex-specific differences in cellular metabolism. The other component of aromatase is NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, which transfers reducing equivalents to P450(arom). Class I cytokines such as IL6 and IL11, as well as TNF-alpha, are important regulatory factors of the CYP19 (aromatase) gene. (from OMIM 107910 and NCI)
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases definition: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
cytochrome P450 definition: superfamily of closely related heme enzymes found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum; they catalyze the insertion of an atom of oxygen into substrates; in animals, these P-450 enzymes are involved in biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids and also in metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs.
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System definition: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Cytochrome P450 definition: A family of cytochromes that are involved in electron transport and oxidative metabolism of drugs and other bioactive molecules. When the catalytic heme is reduced the absorbance peak for this protein occurs at 450 nm.
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 definition: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include alcohol; NITROSAMINES; BENZENE; URETHANE; and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
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génomique definition: Discipline qui séquence et compare les génomes de plusieurs espèces pour comprendre leurs points communs et leurs différences sur le plan biologique.
 
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