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Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne definition: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy definition: An X-linked inherited disorder caused by mutations in the DMD gene found on the X chromosome. It is characterized by rapidly progressing muscle weakness and muscle atrophy initially involving the lower extremities and eventually affecting the whole body. It affects males whereas females can be carriers. The symptoms start before the age of six and may appear at infancy.
pseudohypertrophic progressive muscular dystrophy definition: Pelvic muscle weakness and atrophy associated with pseudohypertrophy of the calves. Two basic types are recognized: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Type I) Synonym: childhood pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy with the onset of symptoms between the ages of 3 and 5 years, the patients becoming bedridden by age of 12 and death by age 20 to 25 years. Becker muscular dystrophy (Type II) Synonyms: adult pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy mild or benign X-linked recessive muscular dystrophy with onset of symptoms between the ages of 20 and 30 years and relatively normal life expectancy in most cases. Atrophic changes begin in the muscles of the pectoral girdle and trunk and extend to the extremities. As their size increases, the muscles become firm and resilient, but their strength diminishes and, eventually, atrophy ensues. Inability to rise to an upright position without turning to the side, waddling gait, and progressive weakness are the characteristic features. Pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles is due to fibrous tissue and fat infiltration. Involvement of the heart consists of usually terminal cardiomyopathy. Fasciculation and atrophy of the tongue with dysphagia, dysarthria, and thickened nasal speech are usually associated. Usually mild and static mental retardation occurs in about 30% DMD patients most children having normal, even superior intelligence.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy definition: X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize dystrophin, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma; muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration; clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy and an increased incidence of impaired mentation; Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course.
 
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