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These techniques have been applied to a SIA system which is able to simultaneously determine ammonium and phosphate at a rate of more than 100 samples per hour each and detection limits (3 σ ) of 0.06 μ M and 0.05 μ M.

Carsten Frank et al.

Journal of Automated Methods & Management in Chemistry 2007 (7), 2007

Succession of ammonium load, readout, and phosphate determination steps.

Carsten Frank et al.

Journal of Automated Methods & Management in Chemistry 2007 (7), 2007

Unusual features of this case are: (1) This patient started developing stones in urinary bladder thirteen years after sustaining spinal cord injury. (2) He was performing intermittent catheterisation and did not have an indwelling catheter. (3) The presenting symptom of vesical lithiasis was abdominal spasms and not urine infection. (4) The major component of the stones was calcium phosphate; magnesium ammonium phosphate was completely absent in the calculus on four occasions. (5) Proteus species were not grown from urine at any time. (6) This patient failed to acidify urine below a pH of 5.3 after taking simultaneously furosemide (40 mg) and fludrocortrisone (1 mg), which suggested incomplete renal tubular acidosis type 1.

Subramanian Vaidyanathan et al.

Cases Journal 1 (7), 17 Nov 2008

These stones usually contain magnesium ammonium phosphate.

Subramanian Vaidyanathan et al.

Cases Journal 1 (7), 17 Nov 2008

Table 2 Results of biochemical analysis of stones, which were removed from urinary bladder: composition of stone is shown in percentage Date when a sample of calculus removed from urinary bladder was received by Biochemistry Laboratory for analysis Weight of the specimen (milligrams) Calcium Oxalate Calcium Phosphate Magnesium ammonium phosphate 21 November 2005 64 Absent 64% 36% 08 December 2006 7184 6% 94% Absent 18 May 2007 5737 Absent 100% Absent 02 November 2007 43 9% 90% Absent 21 April 2008 1149 Absent 88% 11% 27 June 2008 87 10% 90% Absent Figure 3 X-ray of abdomen (27 October 2006) reveals several calcified stones in urinary bladder (arrow).

Subramanian Vaidyanathan et al.

Cases Journal 1 (7), 17 Nov 2008

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