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Definition
 
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Barbiturates definition: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
barbiturate definition: family of 2,4,6-triketopyrimidines with various hydrocarbon side groups at C5; CNS depressants used as anticonvulsants, sedatives, hynotics, and anesthetics; commonly abused and highly addictive.
Barbiturate definition: A class of drugs characterized as central nervous system (CNS) depressants. Barbiturate compounds bind to the gamma amino butyric acid (GABA)-A receptor, thereby increasing the influx of chloride ions into the neuron and subsequently causing hyperpolarization, which produces a decrease in neuronal transmission. Other barbiturate effects in the CNS may include modulation of sodium and calcium channels as well as inhibition of glutamate-mediated excitation. Although the effects of barbiturates are seen throughout the CNS, the predominant effect occurs in the midbrain region, the part of the brain associated with arousal. CNS depressive effects associated with this drug class include mild sedation, hypnosis, anesthesia, and coma as well as a decrease in seizure activity.
Barbiturate definition: A drug used to treat insomnia, seizures, and convulsions, and to relieve anxiety and tension before surgery. It belongs to the family of drugs called central nervous system (CNS) depressants.
Barbiturates definition: A measurement of any barbiturate class drug present in a biological specimen.
Barbiturate Drug Class Measurement definition: The determination of the amount of barbiturate class agents present in a sample.
 
Examples
 

Of clinical importance is induction by barbiturates, by diphenylhydantoin, and especially by rifampicin, of enzymes that are responsible for degradation of estrogens.

H M Bolt

Environmental Health Perspectives 102 (Suppl 9), 01 Nov 1994

GABA and its agonists, as well as benzodiazepines and barbiturates, induce neural inhibition as a consequence of their interaction with specific binding sites for each of these classes of neuroactive substances on the GABA receptor complex of postsynaptic neurons.

E. A. Jones et al.

The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 57 (3), 1984

In a rabbit model of acute liver failure: (i) the pattern of postsynaptic neuronal activity in hepatic coma, as assessed by visual evoked potentials, is identical to that associated with coma induced by drugs which activate the GABA neurotransmitter system (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and GABA agonists); (ii) the levels of GABA-like activity in peripheral blood plasma increase appreciably before the onset of hepatic encephalopathy, due at least in part to impaired hepatic extraction of gut-derived GABA from portal venous blood; (iii) the blood-brain barrier becomes abnormally permeable to an isomer of GABA, alpha-amino-isobutyric acid, before the onset of hepatic encephalopathy; and (iv) hepatic coma is associated with an increase in the density of receptors for GABA and benzodiazepines in the brain.

E. A. Jones et al.

The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 57 (3), 1984

These findings are the bases of the following hypotheses: (i) when the liver fails, gut-derived GABA in plasma crosses an abnormally permeable blood-brain barrier and by mediating neural inhibition contributes to hepatic encephalopathy; (ii) an increased number of GABA receptors in the brain found in liver failure increases the sensitivity of the brain to GABA-ergic neural inhibition; and (iii) an increased number of drug binding sites mediates the increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines and barbiturates observed in liver failure by permitting increased drug effect.

E. A. Jones et al.

The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 57 (3), 1984

Barbiturates are used to lower intracranial pressure or to stop epileptiform activity, with the aim being to improve neurological outcome.

Sandra A Prins et al.

Critical Care 11 (5), 2007

6 further examples >>
Publications
 

Picrotoxin-Barbiturates Antagonism in Decorticated Animals *

H. R. Miller et al.

The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine , 01 May 1939

Interactions between clinically used drugs and oral contraceptives.: ... is induction by barbiturates, by diphenylhydantoin, ...

H M Bolt

Environmental Health Perspectives , 01 Nov 1994

The GABA hypothesis of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy: current status.: ... as benzodiazepines and barbiturates, induce neural ...

E. A. Jones et al.

The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine , 1984

Continuous noninvasive monitoring of barbiturate coma in critically ill children using the Bispectral™ index monitor: ... aggressive management. Barbiturates are used to lower ...

Sandra A Prins et al.

Critical Care , 2007

Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents.: ... such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and ...

B S McEwen

Environmental Health Perspectives , 01 Oct 1987

Long-Lasting Effects of GABA Infusion Into the Cerebral Cortex of the Rat: ... agents (for example, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and ...

Teresa Montiel et al.

Neural Plasticity , 2000

At clinically relevant concentrations the anaesthetic/amnesic thiopental but not the anticonvulsant phenobarbital interferes with hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes: ... the actions of two barbiturates with distinct amnesic ...

Costas Papatheodoropoulos et al.

BMC Neuroscience , 31 Jul 2007

Pentobarbital versus thiopental in the treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension in patients with traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial: ... by the various barbiturates is not equal. Until now ...

Jon Pérez-Bárcena et al.

Critical Care , 2008

Early decompressive craniectomy and duraplasty for refractory intracranial hypertension in children: results of a pilot study: ... and ventilation, barbiturates or mannitol). ...

Bettina Ruf et al.

Critical Care , 2003

Environmental agents that have the potential to trigger massive apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain.: ... nitrous oxide, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, ...

J W Olney et al.

Environmental Health Perspectives , 01 Jun 2000

1 further publication >>